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bio- excretion from coursesaver notes

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Kidney   composed of one million nephrons; outer cortex, inner medulla, and renal pelvis  
ureter   where urine leaves kidneys  
Nephrons   composed of renal corpuscle and renal tubule; reabsorbs nutrients, salts, and water  
Renal corpuscle   glomerulus (sieve) surrounded by Bowman’s capsule  
Renal tubule   proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct  
Urine Formation   filtration, secretion, and reabsorption  
Filtration   fluid that goes through glomerulus (afferent arteriole => glomerulus => efferent) to the rest of the nephron; passive process; driven by hydrostatic pressure of blood  
particles that are too large to filter through glomerulus(blood and albumin)   remain in circulatory system  
Secretion   substances such as acids, bases, and ions (K+) are secreted by both passive / active transport; secreted from peritubular capillaries  
Reabsorption   glucose, salts, AA, and water are reabsorbed from filtrate & return to blood; takes place namely in PROXIMAL convoluted tubule (active)  
Concentration   when dehydrated volume of fluid in bloodstream is low so you need to make small amounts of concentrated urine => ADH prevents water loss by making distal tubule permeable to water  
when Blood Pressure is low =>   aldosterone increases reabsorption of Na+ by distal nephron which increases water retention (serum [Na+] increases BP)  
Selective permeability of the tubules establishes   osmolarity gradient in the surrounding interstitial fluid  
Urine is hypertonic to the blood and contains   high urea and solute concentration.  
Osmolarity Gradient   created by exiting / entering of solutes; increases from cortex to medulla  
Counter Current Multiplier   descending loop permeable to water & ascending is permeable to salts / ions; this makes the medulla very salty and facilitates water reabsorption by small intestine  
Bacteria in large intestine   main source of vitamin K  


   





 
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