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Analysis of urine

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what do the kidneys do?   seperate urine(waste) from the blood  
what is the renal pelvis and what does it do?   it is the central area of the kidney that collects urine.  
what are ureters?   the tubes that conduct urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder  
what is the urinary bladder?   muscular organ that temporarily holds urine then releases it to the urethra  
what is the urethra?   tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body  
what can the kidneys do that other organs can't?   fine tune the elimination of h2O and electrolytes to maintain the normal volume and composition of body fluids  
what is the nephron?   the urine making unit of the kidney  
what is the most important thing when collecting urine specimens?   using the correct cup (sterile cup)  
what is a random sample and a first morning specimen?   fresly voided, very concentrated urine (it determines: protein, nitrates, bacteria & hCG  
when is a 2-hr postprandial urine specimen performed?   done 2hrs after meals to test for diabetes  
what does a 24hr specimen test used for?   hormone levels & creatinine for evaluation of the kidneys  
what is the second voided specimen testing for?   glucose  
what is clean-catch midstream specimen used for?   testing microorganisms & bacteria  
what does the microscopic examination of urine sediment do?   categorizes and counts cells, casts, srystals and miscellaneous constituents of the sediment  
how do you obtain the microscopic examination of urine sediment?   measured portion of urine is centrifuged  
what is a clinitest?   the glucose test on the reagent strip will detect only glucose  
what is a acetest?   an alternative to strip testing when the urine must be tested for the presence of ketones  
what is the pregnancy hormone?   hCG - human chorionic gonadotropin  
what are the normal urine levels for ovulation testing   urine levels of LH of 20mIU/ml or greater  
what hormone does menopause testing detect?   detects FSH in the urine  
what is toxicology?   the study of poisonous (drugs or alcohol) substances and their effects on the body  
what are the steps for patient education of urine testing?   explain collection techniques and provide clearly written instructions  
what does eliminating urine from the body do?   helps the body to maintain water and electrolyte balance  
what are the organs of excretion?   kidney, skin lung & intestines  
urinary system includes which organs?   kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder & urethra  
what functions do the kidneys perform?   excrete nitrogen waste, regulate blood volume, electrolyte concentration, pH & blood pressure - stimulate rbc production  
what is the nephron unit composed of?   renal tubular structure & vascular blood vessel structures  
what are the physical properties of urine?   amount, color, clarity, odor, pH, & specific gravity  
what is the composition of urine? (chemical properties =abnormal componets   protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, blood, nitrite, urobilinogen & leukocytes  
what is the time limit to test urine specimens?   within 2hrs of collection - they should be kept refrigerated  
what is the time limit for culture & sensitivity testing?   within 72hrs  
what is the routine urinalysis? (UA)   the test for the physical properties & appearance (color)  
appearance & turbidity   pale yellow-yellow-straw-amber  
normal adult range for volume of urine   adults 750-2000mL in 24hrs  
what does foam detect?   detects abnormality - greenish yellowish indicates bilirubinurea  
what does odor mean?   gives clue to metabolic disorder caused by disease, bacteria or diet  
what is specific gravity?   the weight of urine compared to distilled water normal range is 1005-1030mL -depending on water intake  
what is polyuria?   excessive urine  
minimum volume for catherization   need to do a minimum of 1500mL  
distilled water   chemical properties have been removed from the water  
colony forming units (cfu)   bacteria in urine  
culture & sensitivity (c&s)   test to detect bacteria & fungus  
what is the uterus?   the womb that holds the fetus  
what is a urinalysis?   an exam that determines urine content  
what is dialysis?   complete seperation of waste from blood when the kidneys fail  


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Created by: 695691734 on 2010-11-14

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