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Chapter 7

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Intrusion   - occurs when an attacker attempts to gain entry or disrupt the normal operations of an information system, almost always with the intent to do harm  
Intrusion detection systems (IDSs)   devices that detect unauthorized activity within the inner network or an individual machine  
Intrusion prevention system (IPS)   – can detect an intrusion, and also prevent that intrusion from successfully attacking the organization by means of an active response  
Intrusion detection/prevention system (IDPS)   )- used to describe current anti-intrusion technologies  
Network-based IDPS (NIDPS)   resides on a computer or appliance connected to a segment of an organization’s network and monitors network traffic on that network segment, looking for indications of ongoing or successful attacks  
Monitoring port   - specially configured connection on a network device that is capable of viewing all of the traffic that moves through the entire device  
Protocol stack verification-   a process in which a network-based intrusion detection prevention system looks for invalid data packets  
Application protocol verification-   the higher-order protocols are examined for unexpected packet behavior or improper use  
Passive mode-   use same connection methods as network-based IDPS  
Inline sensors-   typically intended for network perimeter use, so they would be deployed in close proximity to the perimeter firewalls, often between the firewall and the Internet border router to limit incoming attacks that could overwhelm the firewall  
Host-based IDPS   - resides on a particular computer or server, known as the host, and monitors activity only on that system  
System integrity verifiers   - benchmark and monitor the status of key system files and detect when an intruder creates, modifies, or deletes monitored files  
Signature-based IDPS (knowledge-based IDPS or misuse-detection IDPS)-   examines network traffic in search of patterns that match known signatures  
Signatures   - preconfigured, predetermined attack patterns  
Statistical anomaly-based IDPS (stat IDPS) or behavior-based IDPS-   collects statistical summaries by observing traffic that is known to be normal  
Clipping level-   as detected by an intrusion detection prevention system, the level of network activity that is established as a baseline and therefore activity volumes above that level are considered suspect  
Stateful protocol analysis (SPA)   process of comparing predetermined profiles of generally accepted definitions of benign activity for each protocol state against observed events to identify deviations  
Log file monitor (LFM)-   the system reviews the log files generation by servers, network devices, and even other IDPSs, looking for patterns and signatures that may indicate that an attack or intrusion is in process or has already occurred  
IDPS terrorists-   designed to trip the organization’s IDPS, essentially causing the organization to conduct its own  
Centralized IDPS control strategy-   all IDPS control functions are implemented and managed in a central location  
Fully distributed IDPS control strategy   all control functions are applied at the physical location of each IDPS component  
Partially distributed IDPS control strategy   an intrusion detection prevention system control strategy in which individual agents can still analyze and respond to local threats, but they are required to report to a hierarchical central facility which creates a blended approach that enables the organ  
Honey pots   - decoy systems designed to lure potential attackers away from critical systems  
Honey net   - when a collection of honey pots connects several honey pot systems on a subnet  
Padded cell   - honey pot that has been protected so that it cannot be easily compromised  
Trap and trace   - an extension of the attractant technologies discussed in the previous section, are growing in popularity  
Back hack-   hack into a hacker’s system to find out as much as possible about the hacker  
Enticement-   process of attracting attention to a system by placing tantalizing information in key locations  
Entrapment-   the action of luring an individual into committing a crime to get a conviction  
Attack protocol   - a series of steps or processes used by an attacker in a logical sequence to launch an attack against a target system or network  
Footprinting   - the organized research of the Internet addresses owned or controlled by a target organization  
Fingerprinting-   systematic survey of all of the target organization’s Internet addresses  
Port scanners-   tools used by both attackers and defenders to identify or fingerprint the computers that are active on a network, as well as the ports and services active on those computers, the functions and roles the machines are fulfilling, and other useful informati  
Active vulnerability scanners-   scan networks for highly detailed information  
Passive vulnerability scanner-   one that listens in on the network and determines vulnerable versions of both server and client software  
Packet sniffer-   sometimes called a network protocol analyzer is a network tool that collects copies of packets from the network and analyzes them  
Access control-   security measures such as a badge reader that admits or prohibits people from entering sensitive areas  
Supplicants-   a prospective user who, in the context of access control, seeks to use a protected system, logically access a protected service, or physically enter a protected space  
Strong authentication   - requires at least 2 of the forms of authentication listed below to authenticate the supplicant’s identity  
Password   - private word or combination of characters that only the user should know  
Passphrase   - a series of characters, typically longer than a password from which a virtual password is derived  
Virtual password   - a password calculated or extracted from a passphrase that meets system storage requirements  
Smart card   - contains a computer chip that can verify and validate a number of pieces of information instead of just a PIN  
Synchronous tokens   - synchronized with a server, both devices use the same time or a time-based database to generate a number that is displayed and entered during the user login phase  
Asynchronous tokens   - use a challenge response system- in which the server challenges the supplicant during login with a numerical sequence  
Minutiae-   unique points of reference that are digitized and stored in an encrypted format when the user’s system access credentials are created  
False reject rate-   the percentage of identification instances in which authorized users are denied access a result of a failure in the biometric device  
False accept rate-   the percentage of identification instances in which unauthorized users are allowed access to systems or areas as a result of a failure in the biometric device  
Crossover error rate (CER   )- the level at which the number of false rejections equals the false acceptances, and is also known as the equal error rate  


   





 
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