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order of draw, common tests

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name the order of draw for multiple evac tube collection   blood culture, coagulation (blue), serum (red, gold SST), heparin (green), EDTA (lavender), glycolytic inhibitor (grey)  
when are sterile blood samples taken   always, first regardless of the method  
name the order of draw for multiple syringe collection   blood culture, coagulation (blue) EDTA (lavendar), Gel separator (SST, PST) or non additive (red)  
what colour tube does Hematology mainly use?   EDTA - lavendar  
what colour tube does chemistry mainly use?   light green - PST (gold SST is acceptable)  
what colour tube does coagulation studies mainly use?   Light Blue - sodium citrate  
Gold tube has   gel separator and clot activator. referred to as SST.  
Light Blue tube has   sodium citrate anticoagulant  
Red tube has   clot activator and NO anticoagulant  
Dark Green tube has   sodium heparin anticoagulant  
Light Green tube has   lithium heparin anticoagulant and Gel separator, referred to as PST.  
tubes containing anticoagulants:   dark green, light green, light blue, black, royal blue, lavender  
tubes containing gel separator:   gold-SST, light green-PST  
tubes containing clot activator & no anticoagulant:   red (plastic)  
colour of tube to be used for CBC   lavender  
colour of tube to be used for lead   royal blue (w lavender band)  
colour of tube for PT, PTT   light blue  
colour of tube to be used for K, CREA, GLUF, GLUR, ALP, ALT, CA, CK, LIP, TP, UREA   light green (mint) -PST  
colour of tube to be used for Acute Hepatitis screen   gold - SST  
colour of tube to be used for SPE (serum protein electrophonesis)   gold - SST  
colour of tube to be used for RUBG, TTG, RF, LDL, HDL   light green (mint) - PST  
colour of tube that must be filled correctly/ in proper ratio of 9:1   light blue  
most common hematology tests and colour of tube used:   CBC - includes: RBC, WBC< platelet count, Hgb, Hct & diff leukocyte count. Lavender tube with EDTA  
RBC test?   determines the number of circulating red blood cells  
WBC test?   determines the number of leukocytes  
platelet count?   determines the number of platelets in the peripheral blood. Used to diagnose bleeding disorders and monitor anticoagulant therapy.  
Hgb (hemoglobin) test?   a low value can indicate anemia, high value may occur with sever burns. It is the O2 carrying protein found in rbc's  
Hct (hematocrit) test?   the ratio of rbc's to whole blood volume. Low value may indicate anemia or hemorrhage, elevated value may indicate dehydration or polycythemia. Also called packed cell volume.  
Differential leukocyte count?   count of each wbc, neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, lymphocyte and monocyte.  
ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)?   measure the rate at which erythrocytes fall to the bottom of a tube under controlled lab conditions. Use the Westergren method.  
hemostatsis?   the process by which bleeding is stopped  
hematopoesis?   process by which erythrocytes are formed and developed in bone marrow  
plasma?   a straw coloured liquid includes : fibrinogen, proteins, Na, K, Cl etc. electrolytes, globulin.  
serum?   same components as plasma except fibrinogen is removed by allowing clotting to happen then centrifuged to separate cells from serum.  
erythrocyte?   largest cell, red in colour  
leukocyte?   second largest cell. there are two types - granulocytes & agranulocytes.  
granulocytes?   they have granules, 3 types: neutrophils, basophils & eosinophils.  
which two granulocytes play a role in allergic reactions?   basophil and eosinophil  
agranulocytes?   hav no granules, 2 types: lymphocytes and monocytes  
Phagocytic cells that engulf bacteria and dead tissue cells?   neutrophils & monocytes  
the cell that produces antibodies against substances the body recognizes as foreign?   lymphocytes  
thrombocyte?   also known as a platelet, not a true cell but a cell fragment. Plays a major role in the clotting process by forming the platelet plug that seals breaks in blood vessels.  
Four main tests in the Coagulation section of Hematology department?   platelet count, bleeding time test, PT (prothrombin time test or protime) & APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time)  
what is a timed specimen?   some tests need to be done at a specific time or after a set of criteria is met. Ex. STAT, pre-op, fasting.  
criteria for fasting specimens?   patient eats or drinks nothing for a period of time (8-12 hours). Draw. Common tests: cholesterol, triglycerides & glucose determinations.  
Two hour postprandial glucose test (GLUC2H)   Blood drawn 2 hours after eating. Light green tube. Screening test for diabetes.  
Glucose tolerance test?   Blood drawn on fasting patient, after drinking a standard amount of glucose. Samples taken at periodic intervals. Urine is also collected. Test for: diabetes mellitus & hypoglycemia.  
Glucagon tolerance test?   tests liver for stored glycogen. Fasting 12 hours, injected with glucagon, another spec is drawn.  
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)?   measures the amount of a particular drug in a patient's bloodstream. Good for optimal dosing amounts. Performed on serum drawn in a plain red tube, kept upright, time and method of draw must be included.  


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