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Chapter 1 Micro

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Alga   a photosynthetic eukaryote, may be unicellular, filamentous, or multicellular but lack the tissues found in plants.  
Antibiotic   an antimicrobial agent, usually produced naturally by a bacterium or fungus  
Archaea   prokaryotic cells lacking peptidoglycan, one of the three domains  
Aseptic technique   Laboratory techniques used to minimize contamination  
Bacteria   kingdom of prokaryotic organisms, characterized by peptidoglycan cell walls, bacterium when referring to singular organism  
Bacteriology   The scientific study of prokaryotes, including bacteria and Archaea  
Biogenesis   The theory that living cells arise only from preexisting cells.  
Bioremediation   the use of microbes to remove an environmental pollutant.  
Biotechnology   the industrial application of microbes, cells, or cell components to make a useful product  
Cell Theory   all living organisms are composed of cells and arise from preexisting cells,  
Chemotherapy   treatment with chemical substances  
Ecology   the study of the interrelationship between organism and with their environment  
Eukaryote   a cell having DNA inside a distinct membrane enclosed nucleus  
Fermentation   the enzymatic degradation of carbohydrates in which the final electron acceptor is an organic molecule, ATP is synthesized by substrate level phosphorylation, and oxygen is not required  
Fungus   an organism that belongs to the Kingdom Fungi, a eukaryotic absorptive chemoheterotroph  
Gene therapy   treating a disease by replacing abnormal genes  
Genetic engineering   manufacturing and manipulating genetic material in vitro, also called recombinant DNA technology  
Genomics   the study of genes and their function  
Genus   the first name of the scientific name (binomial), the taxon between family and species  
Germ theory of disease   the principle that microbes cause disease  
Helminth   a parasitic roundworm or flatworm  
Immunity   the body’s defenses against particular pathogenic microbes, also called specific resistance  
Immunology   the study of a host’s specific defenses to a pathogen  
Infectious diseases   a disease in which pathogens invade a susceptible host and carry out at least part of their life cycle  
Koch’s postulates   criteria used to determine the causative agent of infectious diseases  
Microorganism   a living organism too small to be seen with the naked eye, includes bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and microscopic algae, also includes viruses  
Molecular biology   the science dealing with DNA and protein synthesis of living organisms  
Mycology   the scientific study of fungi  
Normal microbiota   the microbes that colonize a host without causing disease also called normal flora  
Parasitology   the scientific study of parasites (protozoa and parasitic worms)  
Pasteurization   the process of mild heating to kill particular spoilage microbes or pathogens  
Pathogen   a disease causing organism  
Prokaryote   a cell whose genetic material is not enclosed in a nuclear membrane  
Protozoan   unicellular eukaryotic organisms, usually chemoheterotroph  
Recombinant DNA   a DNA molecule produced by recombination  
Species   the most specific level in the taxonomic hierarchy  
Species epithet   the second or species name in a scientific binomial  
Spontaneous generation   the idea that life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter  
Synthetic drugs   a chemotherapeutic agent that is prepared from chemicals in a laboratory  
Virology   the scientific study of viruses  
Virus   a submicroscopic, parasitic, filterable agent consisting of a nucleic acid surrounding by a protein coat.  


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