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Nerves

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Anatomically divides into two parts, CNS, PNS   Nerve  
comprises the brain, spinal cord   Central Nervous system  
consists of all other nervous tissue   Peripheral nervous system  
Divides into two groups somatic and autonomic   Nerve function  
Voluntary, conscious control   Somatic  
Involuntary   Autonomic  
Consists of cells and cell process   histologically  
Neuronal cell bodies and processes, glial cells and process, myelin sheath   Histological demonstration of nerves  
consists of cell body (perikaryon) that contains the nucleus and one or more process(axon and dendrites)   Neurons  
vary in shape 4-135 microns   Neurons  
contains predominently euchromatin and a very prominent nucleolus   nucleus  
known as tigroid substance or chromidal substance   Nissl substance  
basophilic material in the cytoplasm of the neuron   Nissl substance  
Large aggregates of rough endoplasmic reticulum w/ the RNA content providing the basis for demonstration by staining   Nissl substance  
Disappears when a neuron is injured, is useful in assessing neuronal damage   Nissl substance  
two types, axons and dedrites   Nerve cell processes  
usually short, highly branched and function as the major sites of information input for the neuron   Dendrites - nerve cell processes  
referred to as nerve fibers, and function by carrying nerve impulses over long distances   Axons  
Each neuron has a single axon that originates from a cone shaped eleveation of cell body and that terminates on the dendrites or cell body of other neurons (synapse)   Nerve cell processes  
provide supporting network for cns   Neuroglia  
produce the myelin sheath covering many axons   Neuroglia  
Regulates the neuronal micro enviroment   Neuroglia  
Oligodendroglia, astroglia, microgia, enpendymal cells   Glial cells  
small cells that produce and maintain the myelin sheath surronding many axons   oligodendroglia  
found in the gray matter (primarily nerve cell bodies) and white matter (primarily nerve fibers)   oligondendroglia  
rarely are special stains reqested to demonstrate these cells   oligodendroglia  
stellate cells of two types, Protoplasmic and Fibrous   Astrocytes  
protoplasmic - occur in gray matter   Astrocytes  
fibrous - occur in white matter   Astrocytes  
Functions include exchange of fluids, gasses and metabolites among nerve tissue, blood and cerebrospinal fluid, scar formation when injury or trauma occurs to the CNS and provides support for nerve fiber tracts   Astrocytes  
Special stains have been replaced by immunohistochemistry   Astrocytes  
Fixed phagocytic cells found throughout the brain and spinal cord   microglia  
special stains rarely requested except for research   microglia  
true epithelial cells that line the ventricals and spinal cords   ependymal cells  
form a selective barrier between the cerebrospinal fluid and the nerve tissue   ependymal cells  
is a complex white fatty nonliving material containing protein, cholestrol, phospholipids and cerebrosides   Myelin  
largely lost during processing, except neurokeratin   Myelin  
formed by oliodendroglia in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS   myelin Sheath  
in response to injury or disease that break down myelin a simple lipd that becomes increasing sudanophilic is formed. luxol fast blue and iron hematoxylin are used to demonstrated the myelin sheath   Myelin  
Purpose - identification of nuerons in tissue sections or the demonstration of the loss of Nissl Substance (chromatolysis)   Cresyl Echt Violet (Vacca)  
Principal - Staining is restricted to DNA and RNA containing structures   Cresyl Echt Violet (VAcca)  
Section 6-8 microns   Cresyl Echt violet (vacca)  
Control - spinal cord   Cresyl Echt Violet (Vacca)  
microscopically, sections may appear unstained leading you to believe that the stain is not working   cresyl Echt Violet (Vacca)  
Nissl subustance and Nuclei - blue/purple   Cresyl Echt Violet (Vacca)  
Purpose - demonstrate nerve fibers, the presence of neurofibillary tangles and senile plaques in alzheimers disease. can also be used to demonstrate granules in some carcinoid tumor cells   bielchowsky  
principles- the tissue is impregnated w/ ammonical silver solution. the silver deposited on the neurofibrils and axons is then reduced to metallic silver by the formaldehyde in the developer. sodium thiosulfate removes any unreduced silver   bielchowsky  
sections 8 microns   bielchowsky  
control - tissue from CNS, if possible tissue containing plaques and tangles   bielchowsky  
axons brown to black   bielchowsky  
cytoplasmic neurofibrils - brown/black   bielchowsky  
neurofibilary tangles and senile plaques drak brown to black   bielchowsky  
neuromelanin - black   bielchowsky  
lipofucsin - brown to black   bielchowsky  
purpose - demonstrate glial fibers   Mallory PTAH  
principle - the phosphotungstic acid in the staining solution is far greater than the hematein and it is believed that tungsten binds all available hematain to give a blue colored lake.   Mallory PTAH  
Metal hematein lake stains selected tissue components (glial fibers), while the phosphtungstic acid is thought to stain the red-brown components (neuron)   Mallory PTAH  
section 6-8 microns   Mallory PTAH  
control; cerebral cortes not spinal cord   Mallory PTAH  
Glial fibers - blues   Mallory PTAH  
Nuclei - blue   Mallory PTAH  
Neurons - salmon   Mallory PTAH  
Myelin - Blue   Mallory PTAH  
purpose - demonstrate myelin in tissue sections, when an axon degenerates the myelin covering breaksdown into simpler lipids that w/b removed eventually   Luxol fast blue  
principal - staining is due to lipoproteins and teh mechnisms is one of an acid-base reaction w/ salt formation. the base of the lipoprotein replaces the base of the dye   Luxol fast blue  
sections 10-15 microns   luxol fast blue  
control - spinal cord or medulla   luxol fast blue  
myelin - blue   luxol fast blue  
background - colorless   luxol fast blue  
gray matter and demylelinated areas appear colorless, a sharp contrast to the stained myelinated white matter. staining can be microscopically seen   luxol fast blue  
purpose - demonstration of glial fibers and areas of gliosis   Holzer method  
principle - glial fibers stained w/ crystal violet are resistant to decolorizing w/ alkaline aniline chloroform mixture   Holzer method  
sections 6-8 micron   Holzer method  
control - cerbral cortex not spinal cord   Holzer Method  
glial fibers - blue   Holzer Method  
Background - very pale blue to colorless   Holzer method  
Purpes - demonstrate astrocytes   Cajal stain  
Prinicple - astrocytes are selectively stained w/ Cajal gold sublimate method on frozen sections   Cajal stain  
fix - formalin ammonium bromide for no less than 2days but no more than 25 days   cajal stain  
section - frozen section cut at 20-30microns, tissue is free floated not placed on slides   Cajal stain  
Control - cerebral cortex not spinal cord   Cajal Stain  
Has been replaced by immunohistochemistry   Cajal Stain  
AStrocytes w/ perivascular feet - black   Cajal stain  


   





 
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Created by: nperez on 2009-02-19



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