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Final Exam

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Constellations   groups if stars named by ancient cultures to honor gods, animals, legends, etc.  
How many constellations are in whole sky?   88  
The stars appear to rotate around _____.   Polaris  
What causes the stars in the night sky to rotate?   The rotation of the Earth.  
What do you call stars and constellations that never set?   circumpolar (the rotate around the pole. Circumpolar stars rotate around Polaris in the Northern Hemisphere.  
How do the stars move at the North and South pole?   horizontally  
How do that stars move at the equator?   Vertically.  
How do stars move at mid-latitudes?   Diagonally,on an arc across the sky.  
Will the sun appear to move with respect to the constellations?   Not in a day, but it will appear to have moved over the course of months or a year.  
What are the 12 constellations the sun moves through in a year called? What is this path called?   The zodiac. Ecliptic.  
Precession   Why your sign is wrong. Rotation of the Earth's axis itself; makes one complete circle in about 26,000 years.  
Sidereal year   Time for Earth to orbit once around the Sun, relative to fixed stars. It follows constellations.  
Tropical year   Time it takes for the Earth to be in the same configuration with respect to the Sun again (as opposed to distant stars). It follows seasons.  
What will happen to the "summer triangle" in 13,000 years?   It will be a winter constellation  
Asterism   Pattern of stars seen in Earth's sky which is not an official constellation.  
Alpha Orionis   Second brightest star in Orion  
Messier Catalog   An early listing of nebulae, star clusters, and deep sky objects that might have been confused with comets by users of small telescopes  
Why don't many professional astronomers know the constellations?   Because big telescopes can only look at small portions of the sky.  
The pattern of rotation that stars make in the sky depends on your _____.   Position.  
What causes night and day?   The earth's rotation on its axis.  
Solar day   Average time between consecutive "noontimes"  
What defines a year?   The revolution of the Earth around the Sun.  
Ecliptic   Path the Earth's motion around the Sun traces on the Celestial Sphere  
T/F The sun is lower in the sky in the winter.   True  
Equinoxes   Sun crosses the celestial equator (twice-- Spring & Fall)  
Solstices   Sun's farthest northernly or southernly position. (summer or winter)  
Ecliptic   Path that the sun follows in the sky. 23.5 degrees to the celestial equator  
Northernmost point above the celestial equator   Summer solace  
Southernmost point below the celestial equator   Winter solace  
Points where paths cross celestial equator   Vernal & autumnal equinoxes  
Time from one vernal equinox to the next   Tropical year  
Season   combination of day length and sunlight angle  
Moon's revolution around the earth causes:   Lunar phases, eclipses, tides  
Synodic month   moon takes about 29.5 days to go through whole cycle of phases  
Phases are due to   different amounts of sunlit portion being wisible from Earth  
Lunar Eclipse   moon disapears  
Solar Eclipse   sun disappears  
Lunar eclipses occur when   the moon enters the shadow of the earth  
Umbra   all sunlight blocked  
penumbra   only some sunlight blocked  
total eclipse   all of moon in umbra  
partial eclipse   only part of moon in umbra  
penumbral eclipse   moon only in penumbra  
Solar eclipses occur when   the Earth enters the shadow of the moon (moon blocks the sun"  
Annular eclipse   moon doesnt cover the whole sun  
Why arent eclipses more frequent?   The moon's orbit around the Earth is tilted so the Earth's orbits and the Moon's orbits are not in the same plane.  
# solar eclipses per year   at least 2, no more than 5  
#Lunar eclipses per year   maximum is 3  
# combined eclipses per year   maximum is 7  
maximum duration of Solar eclipse   7 1/2 minutes  
maximum duration of lunar eclipse   1 hour 47 minutes  
Spring tide   when tides from the sun and moon combine  
Neap tide   when the tides from the Sun and Moon counteract eachother  
How many high tides are there per day?   2  
Lunar phases during which tides are particularly strong   New Moon & Full Moon  
Region between Mars and Jupiter   Asteroid belt  
Asteroids   large chunks of rock and metal left over from the formation of the solar system  
Meteroids   small asteroids. most are less than 1mm in diameter  
Meteors   flash you see when a meteoroid hits the Earth's atmosphere and gets burned up.  
Meteorites   pieces of meteoroids that make it thought the Earth's atmosphere without burning up  
Comets   Dirty snowballs. Ice and rock mixed together  
2 comet tails   Ion tail & dust tail. Point away from the sun.  
2 primary reservoirs of comets   Kuiper Belt & Oort Cloud  
Kuiper Belt   Flattened disk of solar system remnants out past Pluto.  
Oort Cloud   Spherical distribution of material even darther  
The “Terrestrial Planets” include   Earth, Mercury, Mars, Venus  
Astronomers like to describe distances between planets in terms of   AU  
Planet that spins backwards   Venus  
Mercury and Venus exhibit ________________, much like our Moon.   Craters  
Mercury has extreme temperature differences from night to day, but is still _________than Venus, despite being closer to the Sun.   Cooler  
A day on Mercury takes ______ years, while undergoing _________ rotations.   2 years 3 rotations  
Venus is so hot because of its very strong _______________ effect.   Greenhouse  
Oddly, the Earth’s _______________ north is not quite at the same place as the North Pole.   Magnetic North  
The Earth’s ___________________ protects us from the Solar Wind.   Magnetosphere  
Some particles get trapped in the _________________ Belts.   Van Allen  
When these overflow, we see _______________.   an Aurora  
Craters on the Moon are made by the same sort of ________________ impacts that we find on Earth.   Meteor  
Largest volcano in the Solar System.   Olympus Mons  
While the Sun has no surface, the outer layer that we see is called the   Photosphere  
Chromosphere   layer just above the photosphere. Sort of the “lower atmosphere”  
Corona   above the chromosphere. Sort of a hot upper atmosphere  
Sunspots   Dark blotches ont he surface of the sun  
Sunspots are linked by   Pairs of magnetic field lines  
What causes kinks?   the rotation of the sun drags magnetic field lines around with it  
Number of sunspots   varies with time. 11 year cycle  
What happens when the sun's magnetic field prevents hot, ionized material from rising?   Dark sunspots result  
When does the Sun's northern magnetic pole become the southern magnetic pole?   after 11 years  
Solar Flares   eruptions in the Sun's atmosphere that cause energetic particles to escape from the sun  
Coronal mass ejection   emits charged particles that can affect the Earth  
How do stars shine?   nuclear fusion  
Nuclear fusion   the extra mass is converted to energy according the Einsteins famous formula, E=mc2  
Hydrostatic Equilibrium   Fusion keeps stars from collapsing under their own weight. Pressure from the outflowing hot gas balances the pressure of gravity  
Stellar evolution   big bang  
A stars brightness is effected by   its distance from the Earth  
Inverse square Law   Move 2x as far from a light and it gets 4x dimmer  
Temperature of stars   Color of a star is indicative of its temperature. Red- cool Blue- Hot  
Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram   any plot of brightness vs. color or temperature is and HR diagram  
Percent of stars on "main sequence"   90%  
Percent of stars are red giants   9%  
Percent of stars are white dwarfs   1%  
Main sequence stars are also called   dwarfs  
Red Giants   much bigger than the sun, coolest  
Supergiants   bigger and brighter then the average giants  
White Dwarfs   Much smaller than the sun, very hot but not very bright, remnants of dead or dying stars  
supernova   star blown into smithereens  
nebula   supernova remnant  
Pulsars   type of neutron star emitting regular pulses of light  
What happens when compressed gas from stars collides?   New stars form  
Galactic Cannicalism   when two unequal size galaxies collide and merge  
Quasars   Active galaxies  
Most big galaxies have supermassive _______ in their centers   black holes  
During a merger, what happens when fuel is fed into a black hole?   A hot disk of material that spirals into the black hole. the disk shines brighter than the galaxy itself  
Energy source of a Quasar   black hole surrounded by an accretion disk  
When did the universe begin?   about 13.7 billion years ago  
Cosmology   study of the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe  
Universe   all matter, energy, and spacetime  
Homogeneity   Matter is uniformly spread throughout space  
Isotrophy   Universe looks the same in every direction  
cosmological principle   any observer in any part of the universe sees the same general features  
Olber's Paradox   If the universe is homogeneous, isotropic, infinite, and unchanging, the entire sky should be as bright as the surface of the Sun  
Why is it dark at night?   The universe is homogeneous and isotropic, it must not be infinite or unchanging  
Hubble Flow   The universe is not unchanging, it is expanding  
Doppler effect   motion through space-time  


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