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# Geo Exam

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4 ways to compare Canada to other countries?   Area, population, population density, wealth
How do you calculate population density?   Population/area
How do you measure the wealth of a country?   GDP per capita (Gross Domestic Product per person)
GDP   It is the value of all the goods and services produced in a country in a year.
Topographic Map   It is a map that allows you study a small area of the earth's surface eg. elevation map.
Thematic Map   A map in which one topic is emphasized eg. subway map.
General Purpose Map   Allows for a broad understanding eg. atlas map.
Map   A representation of the Earth's features on a flat surface using sympols and colours.
5 map requirements   Title, legend, scale, directions, borders
Title   Identifies the area shown.
Legend   Explains the meaning of symbols and colours
Scale   Compares the distance on the map with the distance in the real world allowing a reader to calculate distance on the map.
Directions   Shown either by a direction arrow, or by longitude and latitude.
Borders   Separate the map and the information.
Map projections   Maps are all slightly inaccurate becasue the earth is round and maps are flat.
Mercator projection   One of the oldest map styles of the world. It was designed to make sea-Bourne navigation very easy. Its longitude lines and latitude lines are equally spaced between each other. Makes north, south poles and Canada seem huge.
Winkle-Tripel projection   A compromise projection that isn't very good for navigating but tries to show the earth as it appears.
Alphanumeric grid   Uses letters and numbers to identify squares in a grid pattern (used on a road map).
Four Digit Grid Reference   Each vertical line is called an easting and runs from the top to the bottom of the map and is idenified by a 2 digit number. The easting is a column to the right of the line. The numbered lines that run horizontally are called the northings and refer to t
Military Grid Reference   A series of lines on a map that can be used to locate any place on a map.
Six Digit Grid Reference   Method to locate an exact point within a grid square on a map by using a 6 point reference.
How long does it take for the earth to rotate 360 degrees?   Once every 24 hours
How many time zones are there?   24 each with a one hour difference
A full 24 hour rotation passes through 360 degrees, so 1 hour is measured in how many degrees?   15 degrees
All places in the same time zone...   Have the same time
Prime meridian   Is a line of longitude on maps that joins the north and south poles and runs through Greenwich, England. Longitude is measured 180 degrees east and 180 degrees west from this line (0) degrees.
Canadian time zones   Pacific standard time (-3), mountain standard time (-2), central standard time (-1), eastern standard time (0) and atlantic standard time (+1)
Scale   It shows the relationship between the size of an object (e.g., a lake or a section of highway) in real life and its size drawn on the map. Maps can be described as either large scale or small scale.
Small Scale Maps   It shows a small amount of detail in a large area. They are used to show more general information such as physical, political, or economic information. Wall maps of the world or Canada, along with road maps are examples of small scale maps.
Large Scale Maps   It shows a large amount of detail in a small area. They are used for more detailed tasks, such as residential planning and military operations. 1:50 000 means that 1 cm on the map represents 50 000 cm (or 500 meters) on the Earth's surface.
Direct Statement Scale   It uses words to describe the relationship between a distance on the map and a specific distance on the earth's surface. It uses Here and There. For example, the distance between Here and There is 30 km.
Line Scale   It is a special kind of ruler that is divided into units of distance. Another name for line scale is linear scale.
Representative Fraction Scale (RF)   It shows the relationship between one of any unit on the map and one of the same units on the ground.
Longitude   Distance east and west of the Prime Meridian measured in degrees.
Latitude   Distance north and south of the Equator measured in degrees.
Aerial photos   Vertical photos taken by an aircraft or satellite and is an important tool in geographical research.
Stereo pair   Two overlapping aerial photos taken by an aircraft in rapid succession by a high speed camera.
Advantage of stereo pair photos   Using a stereoscope to view the photos, you see the images in 3 dimensions (length, width and height) so you can see more than a regular photgraph.
Remote sensing   A technolgoy for studying the earth by using images and photos taken by aircraft or satellites.
Satellite images   Cover very large areas but show less detail than aerial photos (reverse for aerial photos).
Five uses of remote sensing   To study weather, manage agriculture, monitor forests, keep maps current, see ice patterns.

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Created by: knobit on 2008-12-08