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OB Exam 2

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Job Evalutation   Systematically evaluating the worth of jobs within an organization by measuring their required skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions.  
Gainsharing Plan   A reward system in which team members earn bonuses for reducing costs and increasing labor efficiency in their work process.  
Employee Stock Ownership Program (ESOPs)   A reward system that encourages employees to buy stock in the company.  
Stock Options   A reward system that gives employees the right to purchase company stock at a future date at a predetermined price.  
Profit Sharing Plans   A reward system that pays bonuses to employees based on the previous year's level of corporate profits.  
Balanced Scorecard (BSC)   A reward system that pays bonuses for improved results on a composite of financial, customer, internal process, and employee factors.  
Job Design   The process of assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependency of those tasks with other jobs.  
Job Specialization   The result of division of labor in which each job includes a subset of the tasks required to complete the product or service.  
Scientific Management   Involves a systematically partitioning work into its smallest elements and standardizing tasks to achieve maximum efficiency.  
Motivator-Hygiene Theory   Herzberg's theory stating that employees are primarily motivated by growth and esteem needs, not by lower-level needs.  
Job Characteristics Model   A job design model that relates the motivational properties of jobs to specific personal and organizational consequences of those properties.  
Skill Variety   The extent to which employees must use different skills and talents to perform tasks within their job.  
Task Identity   The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole or an identifiable piece of work.  
Task Significance   The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the organization and/or larger society.  
Autonomy   The degree to which a job gives employees the freedom, independence, and discretion to schedule their work and determine the procedures used in completing it.  
Job Rotation   The practice of moving employees from one job to another.  
Job Enlargement   Increasing the number of tasks employees perform within their job.  
Job Enrichment   Giving employees more responsibility for scheduling, coordinating, and planning their own work.  
Empowerment   A psychological concept in which people experience more self-determination, meaning, competence, and impact on regarding their role in the organization.  
Self-Leadership   The process of influencing oneself to establish the self-direction and self-motivation needed to perform a task.  
Self-Talk   Talking to ourselves about our own thoughts or actions for the purpose of increasing our self-confidence and navigating through decisions in a future event.  
Mental Imagery   Mentally practicing a task and visualizing its successful completion.  
Stress   An individual's adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person's well-being.  
General Adaptation Syndrome   A model of the stress experience, consisting of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.  
Stressors   The causes of stress, including any environmental conditions that place a physical or emotional demand on the person.  
Psychological Harassment   Repeated and hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, actions, or gestures that affect an employee's dignity or psychological or physical integrity and that result in a harmful work environment for the employee.  
Sexual Harassment   Unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature that detrimentally affects the work environment or leads to adverse job-related consequences for its victims.  
Role Conflict   Incongruity or incompatibility of expectations associated with a person's role.  
Role Ambiguity   A lack of clarity and predictability of the outcomes of a person's behavior.  
Resilience   The capability of individuals to cope successfully in the face of significant change, adversity, or risk.  
Workaholic   A person who is highly involved in work, feels compelled to work, and has a low enjoyment of work.  
Type A Behavior Pattern   A behavior pattern associated with people having premature coronary heart disease; Type A's tend to be impatient, lose their temper, talk rapidly, and interrupt others.  
Job Burnout   The process of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced efficacy (lower feelings of personal accomplishment) resulting from prolonged exposure to stress.  
Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)   Counseling services that help employees overcome personal or organizational stressors and adopt more effective coping mechanisms.  
Organizational Structure   The division of labor and the patterns of coordination, communication, work flow and formal power that direct organizational activities.  
Span of Control   The number of people directly reporting to the next level in the organizational hierarchy.  
Centralization   The degree to which formal decision authority is held by a small group of people, typically those at the top of the organizational hierarchy.  
Formalization   The degree to which organizations standardize behavior through rules, procedures, formal training, and related mechanisms.  
Mechanistic Structure   An organizational structure with a narrow span of control and high degrees of formalization and centralization.  
Organic Structure   An organizational structure with a wide span of control, with little formalization, and decentralized decision making.  
Functional Structure   An organizational structure that organizes employees around specific knowledge or other resources.  
Divisional Structure   An organizational structure that groups employees around geographic areas, clients, or outputs.  
Matrix Structure   A type of departmentalization that overlays two organizational forms in order to leverage the benefits of both.  
Team-Based Structure   A type of departmentalization with a flat hierarchy and relatively little formalization, consisting of self-directed work teams responsible for various work processes.  
Network Structure   An alliance of several organizations for the purpose of creating a product or serving a client.  
Virtual Corporations   Network structures representing several independent companies that form unique partnership teams to provide customized products or services, usually to specific clients, for a limited time.  
Organizational Strategy   The way an organization positions itself in its setting in relation to its stakeholders, given the organization's resources, capabilities, and mission.  
Organizational Culture   The basic pattern of shared values and assumptions governing the way employees within an organization think about and act on problems and opportunities.  
Artifacts   The observable symbols and signs of an organization's culture.  
Rituals   The programmed routines of daily organizational life that dramatize the organization's culture.  
Ceremonies   Planned and usually dramatic displays of organizational culture, conducted specifically for the benefit of an audience.  
Adaptive Culture   An organizational culture in which employees focus on the changing needs of customers and other stakeholders, and support initiatives to keep pace with those changes.  
Bi-cultural Audit   A diagnosis of cultural relations between companies prior to a merger and a determination to the extent to which cultural clashes are likely to occur.  
Organizational Socialization   The process by which individuals learn the values, expected behaviors, and social knowledge necessary to assume their roles in the organization.  
Reality Shock   Perceived discrepancies between pre-employment expectations and on-the-job reality.  
Realistic Job Preview (RJP)   The process of giving job applicants a balance of positive and negative information about the job and work context.  


   





 
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