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Terms associated with wave mechanics and electron arrangements in atoms.

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Term
Definition
transverse   a wave whose medium particles move perpendicular to wave direction  
longitudinal   a wave whose medium particles move parallel to wave direction  
medium   material through which a wave moves  
crest   upward displacement of a transverse wave  
trough   downward displacement of a transverse wave  
amplitude   'rest to crest' displacement (height) of a wave  
wavelength   crest to crest distance of a wave  
frequency   # of waves that pass a point per second  
hertz   SI unit of frequency  
inversely proportional   math relationship between frequency and wavelength for waves in a particular medium  
ROY G. BIV   mnemonic for remembering visible light spectrum from longest to shortest wavelength  
visible spectrum   400 - 700 nanometers  
nanometer   10^-9 meters  
c   abbreviation for 'speed of light'  
lambda   variable/letter that stands for wavelength  
electromagnetic   classification of any wave that does not require a medium  
radio, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma   the electromagnetic spectrum sections: RaMIVUX-G  
flame test   experiment that identifies metal ions by the color of light they make in a fire  
emission spectrum   light 'fingerprint' emitted by a gaseous element when electrically stimulated  
Balmer series   collected spectral lines in the visible bright-line spectrum of hydrogen  
ground state   the condition of an electron when at its lowest possible energy  
excited state   describes an electron at a higher than normal energy level  
transition   a change of energy levels (up or down) of an electron  
dual   electrons have both wave and particle characteristics so they have a _?_ nature  
orbital   a 90% probability region in which an electron is likely to be found  
s orbital   spherical shaped probability cloud, one per energy level  
p orbital   dumbbell shaped probability cloud, three per energy level  
d orbital   cloverleaf shaped probability cloud, five per energy level  
f orbital   seven probability clouds per energy level with complex shapes  
quantum numbers   set of 4 numbers/letters that describe the energy state of an electron in an atom  
principal   the quantum number that corresponds to the Bohr model energy levels  
angular/azimuthal (orbital)   the quantum number that describes the shape of the probability cloud in which an electron is moving  
magnetic   the quantum number that indicates the orientation in space (ex: x, y, or z) of a probability region  
spin   the quantum number that describes some opposite behavior for electrons that can have only two possibilities (ex: cw, ccw)  
aufbau principle   states that electrons enter the lowest energy position/orbital first  
Hunds rule   states that each orbital in a sublevel must receive one electron before pairing occurs  
Pauli exclusion principle   states that no two electrons in an atom have the exact same set of quantum numbers (i.e. all electrons are unique within an atom)  
diagonal rule   a diagram the indicates where principal energy level sublevels 'overlap'  
belated filling   the addition of electrons to a sublevel of a principal level AFTER electrons have entered a higher principal level  
s block   groups 1-2; elements on the periodic table into which the last added electron enters an 's' orbital  
p block   groups 13-18; elements on the periodic table into which the last added electron enters an 'p' orbital  
d block   groups 3 - 12; elements on the periodic table into which the last added electron enters an 'd' orbital  
f block   bottom two rows on the periodic table; elements into which the last added electron enters an 'f' orbital  
orbital notation   used blanks and arrows to show the arrangement of electrons in an atom __ __ __ __ __, etc  
electron configuration notation   uses coefficients, letters, superscripts, and sometimes brackets/symbols to show the arrangement of electrons in an atom (1s^2 2s^2...)  
photoelectric effect   ejection of electrons by some metals when light of sufficient energy strikes the surface  
photon   a packet or bundle (quantum) of light energy  
quantum   a packet or bundle of energy of any kind (energy comes in particles!)  
joule   SI unit of photon (or any form of...) energy  
2nd   energy level an excited electron must fall to to emit/release a photon of visible light  
1st   energy level an excited electron must fall to to emit/release a photon of ultraviolet light  
3rd   energy level an excited electron must fall to to emit/release a photon of infrared light  
sublevel   all electron orbitals of equivalent energy for one of these (ex: it takes three p orbitals to form a p _?_)  


   





 
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