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WVSOM Class of 2012 Gametogenesis

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Question
Answer
the size of sperm is sloughed off during which phase?   spermiogenesis  
gonad precursors are what structures?   germinal ridges  
before puberty, testicular sex cords develop lumens to become?   seminiferous tubules  
at puberty, primordial germ cells in males become what?   spermatogonia  
what is the function for sertoli cells?   provide support and nutrition to sperm cells  
how do spermatogonia divide?   incomplete cytokenesis via mitosis  
how do spermatogonia differentiate into primary spermatocytes?   meiosis  
what event causes primary spermatocytes to become secondary spermatocytes?   the first meiotic division  
how long is the prophase of primary spermatocytes?   22 days  
after the second meiotic division, secondary spermatocytes are called what?   spermatids  
what occurs during spermiogenesis?   spermatazoa maturation (spermatids become spermatazoa)  
cytoplasmic remains from spermiogenesis are called what?   residual bodies  
how long does spermatogenesis take?   64 days  
female primordial germ cells become what?   oogonia  
how do oogonia proliferate?   mitosis  
primary oocytes enter what phase and stay there?   meiotic prophase I  
after meiotic prophase I, and with the addition of follicle cells (stroma cells), oocytes are called what?   primordial follicles  
By the end of the 3rd month of gestation, oogonia become arranged into clusters surrounded by what?   follicular cells  
how many primordial follicles are left by puberty?   about 400,000  
how many primordial follicles ever ovulate?   about 500  
the menstrual cycle causes what hormone to activate?   FSH  
how many primordial follicles are induced to maturation each cycle?   5-15  
what are corpus atreticum?   masses of atresia cells  
how are spermatozoa pushed towards the epididymis?   contractile elements of the wall of the seminiferous tubules  
once primordial follicles become primary follicles, the squamous follicular cells become what?   granulosa cells  
granulosa cells are what kind of tissue?   stratified epithelium  
what is the glycoprotein layer secreted by the oocyte and the granulosa cells?   zona pellucida  
what term is used to describe the irritation that occurs from the release of fluid and blood from the ovulation point into the pelvic peritoneum?   middle pain ("mittelscherz")  
what is the name of the stroma cells that surround the granulosa epithelium?   theca folliculi  
the theca folliculi differentiate into what layers and for what purpose?   theca interna and externa; externa are connective, interna secrete estrogen  
what develops that differentiates primary and secondary follicles?   antrum (fluid-filled space)  
what are the granulosa cells of the secondary follicle that remain around the oocyte?   cumulus oophorus  
a full-sized follicle is called a what?   Graafian follicle  
after a follicle reaches its full size, what cycle resumes?   meiosis I  
unequal cytokinesis of a primary oocyte will form a what?   polar body  
after the formation of a polar body, the secondary oocyte continues meiosis to what stage?   metaphase II  
after ovulation, the cumulus oophorus becomes what?   corona radiata  
the remains of a follicle form what structure?   corpus leuteum  
the corpus leuteum secretes what hormone?   progesterone  
if the egg is not fertilized, the corpus leuteum become what?   corpus albicans  
how are spermatogonia connected?   cytoplasmic bridges  
at what point does the primary oocyte become a secondary oocyte?   formation of polar body  
when does ovulation occur in the cell cycle?   after cell reaches metaphase II  


   





 
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