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more vocab

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.
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Question
Answer
surfactant   wetting agent that breaks surface tension  
solute   is being dissolved  
solvent   is doing the dissolving  
saturated   contains the max. amount of solute that can be dissolved  
molarity   number of moles per solute/ liters of solution  
solubility   the max amount of a solute that can be dissolved at a certain temp.  
supercooled   cooled beyond the point when something would normally freeze  
molality   number of moles of solute dissolved per kg of solute  
colligative properties   differences btwn the properties of pure solvents and their solutions 1. vapor pt lowering 2. boiling pt elevation 3. freezing pt depression  
effective molality   M of NaCl x 2= eff.molality  
activation energy   the energy it takes to start a reaction  
endothermic   heat is gained by a system (+H)  
exothermic   heat is lost by a system (-H)  
enthalpy   internal warmth (H) the larger H is, the less stable, if H is +, heat is given off (exothermic) if H is -, heat is absorbed (endothermic), usually spontaneous.  
quanta   the smallest quantity of radiant energy  
quantum model   the probability of where you'd find an electron in an orbit around an atom  
emission spectrum   the characteristic set of frequencies that are given off as an element is heated  
frequency   # of wavepeaks in some time (v) hertz  
wavelength   distance btwn peaks (λ)  
photon   unit of radiant energy  
Know the electromagnetic spectrum   ---> larger frequency, smaller wavelength 1.radio/tv 2.microwave 3.infrared 4.visible light(roygbiv) 5.UV 6. x-ray 7.gamma  
know the aufbau diagram and principle   electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first  
electron configuration   the way electrons are arranged around an atom.  
energy level   n- energy level s(1 orbital), p(3 orb.), d(5 orb.), f(7 orb.)  
orbital   electron cloud where there's a high chance of finding an electron, max 2 electrons in each.  
ionization energy   the min. energy an electron needs to leave the atom it is in.  
electronegativity   the tendency of an atom to draw electrons to itself in a bond or compound.  
electron affinity   the energy needed to add an electron to an atom.  
VSEPR theory   determines the shape of an atom ex: trigonal planar, bent, pyramidal, linear  
resonance   when a molecule fluctuates btwn 2 valid electron structures  
valence electron   electrons that are in the highest occupied energy lvl for an atom  
adiabatic cooling   when you lower the pressure, it lowers the temp.  
sublimation   change directly from solid to gas  
barometer   measures atmospheric pressure  
molecular solids   soft/low melting point  
ionic solids   high melting point, brittle  
temperature   average kinetic energy of particles  
heat of fusion   the heat in calories required to convert 1g of a material from solid to liquid state  
entropy   S, the amount of disorder in a system  
nonspontaneous reaction   if +G always if +H,-S ex:photosynthesis  
spontaneous reaction   if -G always if -H, +S ex: burning paper  
what will change the rate of a reaction?   temperature, concentration, particle size.  
superheat   when a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling.  
condensation   from gas to liquid, opposite of vaporization  
solution   a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase (made of solute and solvent)  
heat of vaporization   from liquid to gas  
allotropes   different solid forms of the same element  
vapor pressure   the measure of how quickly a chemical liquid will evaporate.  
supersaturated   a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under the solubility amount.  
heat   the energy an object has because of the motion of its particles  
calorie   the energy needed to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water by 1°C.  
freezing point depression equation   ΔT = K x eff.molality  
coordinate covalent bond   when the 2 electrons in the bond come from 1 atom  
double covalent bond   sharing of 2 pairs of electrons btwn 2 atoms  
polar covalent bond   electrons are shared unevenly  
non polar covalent bond   electrons are shared evenly  
buffer solution   resists changes in pH when small quantities of an acid or an alkali are added to it.  


   






 
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