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Chapters 19,20,21

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The growth of new blood vessels. Vital process in the fetus and in postnatal growth.   Angiogenesis  
Malignant tumors secrete proteins called ________ that stimulate blood vessel growth to nature the tumor cells.   Tumor angiogenesis factors (TAFs)  
forces involved in circulating blood   Hemodynamics  
________ form a closed system that carry blood away from the heart, transport it to the tissues of the body, and then return it to the heart.   Blood vessels  
Carry blood away from the heart to the tissues.   Arteries  
Are small arteries that supply capillaries.   Arterioles  
Are the site of exchange between the blood and tissues.   Capillaries  
Connect blood from capillaries and return blood to larger veins.   Venules  
Take blood from the tissues back to the heart.   Veins  
Are small blood vessels that supply blood to the cells of the walls of large arteries and veins.   Vaso vasorum  
The wall of an artery have three major layers   Tunica interna, Tunica media, Tunica externa  
Simple squamous epithelium called endothelium basement membrane internal elastic lamina   Tunica interna (intima)  
circular smooth muscle & elastic fibers   Tunica media  
elastic & collagen fibers   Tunica externa  
The functional properties of arteries are ______ and _______.   elasticity; contractility  
allows arteries to receive blood under great pressure from the contraction of the ventricles and to send it on through the system   Elasticity  
allows arteries to increase or decrease lumen size. This helps propel blood forward and to limit bleeding from wounds.   Contractility  
Vascular smooth muscle is innervated by _________.   sympathetic nervous system  
increase in sympathetic stimulation causes muscle contraction. decreases diameter of vessel   Vasoconstriction  
injury to artery or arteriole causes muscle contraction reducing blood loss   Vasospasm  
decrease in stimulation or presence of certain chemicals causes vasodilation. increases diameter of vessel nitric oxide, K+, H+ and lactic acid cause vasodilation   relaxation of smooth muscle layer  
Large arteries with more elastic fibers and less smooth muscle are called _______ and are able to receive blood under pressure and propel it onward. Function as a pressure reservoir.   elastic arteries  
Elastic Arteries are also called ______ because they conduct blood from the heart to medium sized muscular arteries.   conducting arteries  
Medium-sized arteries with more muscle than elastic fibers in tunica media.These arteries are capable of greater vasoconstriction and vasodilation to adjust rate of flow. Walls are relatively thick.   Muscular Arteries  
_____ are very small, almost microscopic, arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. The greatest resistance to blood flow.   Arterioles  
Through vasoconstriction and vasodilation arterioles assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries and in __________.   altering arterial blood pressure  
Microscopic vessels that connect arterioles to venules. Found near every cell in the body but more extensive in highly active tissue. Function is exchange of nutrients & wastes between blood and tissue fluid   Microcirculation  
Capillary walls are composed of only a ______ of cells and a _______.   single layer; basement membrane.  
_____form branches into capillary bed. Can bypass capillary bed, precapillary sphincters close & blood flows out of bed in thoroughfare channel.   Metarterioles  
_______ is intermittent contraction & relaxation of sphincters that allow filling of capillary bed 5- 10 times/minute   vasomotion  
Types of capillaries   Continuous capillaries, Fenestrated capillaries, Sinusoids  
Why are muscular arteries called distributing arteries?   because they direct blood flow to specific areas  
Intercellular clefts are gaps between adjacent cells. Found in skeletal & smooth muscle, connective tissue and lungs   Continuous capillaries  
Plasma membranes have many holes. Found in kidneys, small intestine, choroid plexuses, ciliary process & endocrine glands   Fenestrated capillaries  
Very large fenestrations. Incomplete basement membrane ␣ found in liver, bone marrow, spleen, anterior pituitary, & parathyroid gland   Sinusoids  
Small veins collecting blood from capillaries. Tunica media contains only a few smooth muscle cells & scattered fibroblasts   Venules  
Consist of the same three tunics as arteries but have a thinner tunica interna and media and a thicker tunica externa. Less elastic tissue and smooth muscle (thinner-walled than arteries). Have valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Major volume reserv   Veins  
______ are veins with very thin walls with no smooth muscle to alter their diameters. Examples are the brain’s superior sagittal sinus and the coronary sinus of the heart.   Vascular (venous) sinuses  
Twisted, dilated superficial veins. Caused by leaky venous valves. Allow backflow and pooling of blood   Varicose Veins  
The most common sites for varicose veins are in the….   esophagus, superficial veins of the lower limbs, and veins in the anal canal (hemorrhoids). Deeper veins are not usually susceptible because of support of surrounding muscles  
Union of 2 or more arteries supplying the same body region. Blockage of only one pathway has less of effect because flow comes via the other artery. Circle of willis underneath brain and coronary circulation of heart.   Anastomoses  
Alternate route of blood flow through an anastomosis is known as   collateral circulation  
Generally, How much of blood volume at rest is in systemic veins and venules?   60%  
increased muscular activity produces   venoconstriction  
causes venoconstriction to help maintain blood pressure   Hemorrhage  
Movement of materials in & out of a capillary by three methods   Diffusion, Transcytosis, Bulk flow  
passage of material across endothelium in tiny vesicles by endocytosis and exocytosis   Transcytosis  
is the volume of blood that flows through any tissue in a given period of time   Blood flow  
Total blood flow is cardiac output.   Cardiac output (CO) = heart rate (HR) X stroke volume (SV)  
How the total blood flow becomes distributed into circulatory routes depends on two more factors.   1.Pressure difference that drives the blood flow 2.The resistance to blood flow in specific blood vessels.  
pressure gradients drive the blood flow. Velocity of blood flow, volume of blood flow, blood pressure Resistance to flow and venous return   Factors affecting circulation  
Pressure exerted by blood on walls of a vessel. If heart rate increases cardiac output, BP rises.   Blood pressure  
Pressure falls steadily in ____ with distance from left ventricle.   systemic circulation  
Water retention increases _____   Blood pressure  
Blood pressure drops if……..   decrease in blood volume is over 10%,  
Caused by friction between blood and the walls of vessels   Resistance  
The factors that influence resistance are?   size of blood vessel lumen, blood viscosity and total vessel length  
smaller vessels offer more resistance to blood flow Cause moment to moment fluctuations in pressure   Size of lumen  
Ratio of red blood cells to plasma volume. Increases in viscosity increase resistance. Such as dehydration or polycythemia   Blood viscosity (thickness)  
The longer the vessel, the greater the resistance to flow 200 miles of blood vessels for every pound of fat obesity causes high blood pressure   total blood vessel length  
Volume of blood flowing back to the heart from the systemic veins.   Venous Return  
An electrical event in a cell that leads to the mechanical event (contraction)   action potential or impluse  
Physiology of contraction   Depolarization > Plateau > Repolarization  
Depolarization   excitation spreads between adjacent cells through gap junctions in the intercalated disks  
Plateau   slow Ca+2 channels open, let Ca +2 enter from outside cell and from storage in sarcoplasmic reticulum, while K+ channels close – Ca +2 binds to troponin to allow for actin-myosin cross- bridge formation & tension development  
Repolarization   Ca+2 channels close and K+ channels open & -90mv is restored as potassium leaves the cell  
ATP production in cardiac muscle is caused by   Aerobic cellular respiration / creatine phosphate  
What is an EKG   action potentials of all active cells detected and recorded  
EKG broken into 3 visible waves :   P wave, QRS complex, T wave  
P wave   Atrial depolarization - spread of impluse from SA node over atria  
QRS complex   ventricular depolarization - spread of impluse through ventricles  
T wave   ventricular repolarization  
Cardiac cycle consists of...   Systole and Diastole of both atria then by ventricles  
Auscultation   the act of listening to sounds within the body  
Cardiac output   The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute. SV x HR = CO  
Factors that effect Stroke Volume : (3)   Preload, Contractility, Afterload  
Preload (Frank-Starling Law)   The more the muscle is stretched there is a greater force of contraction  
Contractility   Autonomic nerves, homrones, Ca2+ K+ levels  
Afterload   amount of pressure caused by the blood in the vessel (high pressure = high afterload)  
Which nervous system increases heart rate and force of contraction   Sympathetic impulses  
Which nervous systen decreases heart rate   Parasympathetic impulses  
Baroreceptors   detect change in blood pressure and send info to the cardiovascular center  
Myocardial infarction   death of area of muscle from lack of O2 (heart attack)  
Angina pectoris   heart pain from ischemia of cardiac muscle  
Coronary Artery Disease   condition in which the heart muscle receives too much blood  
Atherosclerosis   a process in which smooth muscle cells proliferate and fatty substances, especially cholesterol and triglycerides (neutral fats), accumulate in the walls of the medium- sized and large arteries in response to certain stimuli, such as endothelial damage  
Congestive heart failure   a chronic or acute state that results when the heart is not capable of supplying the oxygen demands of the body  
The two mechanisms that "pump" blood from the lower body back to the heart?   Skeletal muscle pump and respiratory pump  
What advantage does a slow rate in the capillaries offer?   Exchanges occur. ex: gas exchange  
Syncope "fainting"   Refers to a sudden, temporary loss of consciousness followed by spontaneous recovery due to cerebral ischemia.  
Role of cardiovascular center   Medulla oblongata helps regulate heart rate and stroke volume  
Innervation of the Heart   Speed up the heart with sympathetic stimulation. Slow it down with parasympathetic stimulation (X). Sensory information from baroreceptors (IX).  
Systemic Circulation   left side heart to body & back to heart  
Hepatic portal circulation   capillaries of GI tract to capillaries in liver  
Pulmonary circulation   right-side heart to lungs & back to heart  
Fetal circulation   From fetal heart through umbilical cord to placenta & back  
4 major divisions of aorta   ascending aorta arch of aorta thoracic aorta abdominal aorta  
Largest artery of the body   Aorta  
Ascending aorta   2 coronary arteries supply myocardium  
arch of aorta   branches to the arms & head brachiocephalic trunk branches into right common carotid and right subclavian  
Thoracic aorta   supplies branches to pericardium, esophagus, bronchi, diaphragm, intercostal & chest muscles, mammary gland, skin, vertebrae and spinal cord  
Veins of the Systemic Circulation   Drain blood from entire body & return it to right side of heart Deep veins parallel the arteries in the region  
Major systemic veins   superior vena cava drains the head and upper extremities inferior vena cava drains the abdomen, pelvis & lower limbs coronary sinus is large vein draining the heart muscle back into the heart  
What are the lymphatic system functions?   Drain interstitial fluid, Transport dietary fats, carryout specific immune responses  
Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended __________ in tissue spaces between cells.   lymph capillaries  
Interstitial fluid drains into lymphatic capillaries, thus forming..   lymph  
Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels, called _______, which convey lymph into and out of structures called _______.   lymphatic vessels; lymph nodes  
ability to fight a specific pathogen   specific resistance  
innate defenses   Nonspecific resistance  
consists of a fluid called lymph flowing within lymphatic vessels, several structures and organs that contain lymphatic tissue   Lymphatic system  
located within lymphatic vessels and lymphatic tissue.   lymph  
found between cells   interstitial fluid  
begin as blind-ended tubes found in spaces between cells   lymphatic capillaries  
These capillaries come together to form   Lymphatic vessels  
Lymph flows through lymph nodes towards the….   heart  
attach endothelial cells to surround tissue.   Anchoring filaments  
A lymphatic capillary in the villi of the small intestine are called….. function to transport digested fats from the small intestine into blood.   lacteals  
Found throughout the body except in avascular tissue. Structure allows tissue fluid in but not out   lymphatic capillaries  
Lymph passes from lymphatic ___ into lymphatic ____ and then through lymph ______.   capillaries; vessels; nodes  
Lymphatic vessels exit lymph nodes in a particular region of the body, they unite to form   Lymph trunks  
Which trunk drain lymph from the lower limbs, the wall and viscera of the pelvis, the kidneys, the adrenal glands, and the abdominal wall.   Lumbar trunks  
Which trunk drains lymph from the stomach, intestines, pancreas, spleen, and part of the liver   intestinal trunk  
Which trunk drain lymph from the thoracic wall, lung, and heart   Bronchomediastinal trunks  
Which trunk drain the upper limbs   Subclavian trunks  
Which trunk drain the head and neck   jugular trunks  
Lymph passes from lymph trunks into two main channels: What are the channels?   The thoracic duct (left lymphatic duct) and The right lymphatic duct  
The thoracic duct (left lymphatic duct) begins as a dilation called the …. And s the main collecting duct of the lymphatic system.   cisterna chyli  
Which duct receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, and chest, the left upper extremity, and the entire body below the ribs. Drains lymph into venous blood via the left subclavian vein.   left lymphatic duct  
which duct receives lumph from the upper right side of the body   right lymphatic duct  
Lymph flows as a result of the action of   skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements.  
Bean-shaped organs, up to 1 inch long, located along lymphatic vessels   lymph nodes  
Parenchyma is divided into 2 regions:   cortex and medulla  
the site of proliferation of plasma cells (a type of B cell) and T cells.   lymph nodes  
Lymph enters nodes through _____ lymphatic vessels, is filtered to remove damaged cells and microorganisms, and exits through ____ lymphatic vessels.   afferent; efferent  
2 lobed organ located in mediastinum, superior & anterior to the great vessels of the heart. The organ has a capsule and trabeculae that divide the organ into lobules   thymus gland  
tightly packed lymphocytes (T cells) & macrophages   Cortex (thymus Gland)  
reticular epithelial cells produces thymic hormones   Medulla (thymus gland)  
Lymphatic organs and tissues are widely distributed throughout the body and classified into two groups   Primary lymphatic organs and Secondary lymphatic organs & tissues  
Which lymphatic organ provide environment for lymphoid stem cells to divide & mature into B and T lymphocytes   Primary  
The site where most immune responses occur   Secondary lymphatic organs and tissues  
What is the flow of Lymph   Lymph starts as plasma in capillaries, the fluid goes into interstitial spaces and then to lymph capillaries to lymphatic vessels to lymph trunks to the thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct to the subclavian veins  
what promotes the flow of lymphatic fluid   respiratory and muscular pumps  
Lymphatic vessels empty into …..   subclavian veins  
What region has lymphatic nodules with germinal centers containing dendritic cells and B cells which proliferate into antibody-secreting plasma cells   cortex (lymph nodes)  
What region contains B cells & plasma cells in medullary cords   medulla (lymph nodes)  
The site where pre-T cells that migrate from red marrow mature   thymus  
  Size of Lymph nodes  
5 inch organ between stomach & diaphragm   Spleen  
What does Stroma consists of?   capsule, trabeculae, fibers & fibroblasts  
What does the Parenchyma in spleen consists of?   white pulp and red pulp  
Lymphatic tissue around branches of splenic artery   White pulp is made up of…..  
venous sinuses filled with blood & splenic tissue consisting of RBCs, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulocytes.   Red pulp is made up of…..  
the production of blood cells during the second trimester of pregnancy is involved in the ...   Red pulp  
The spleen stores _____ in the red pulp.   blood platelets  
Lymphatic Nodules   Concentrations of lymphatic tissue not surrounded by a capsule scattered throughout connective tissue of mucous membranes (MALT)  
Nonspecific resistance   a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens and their toxins.  
mechanical barriers, nonspecific phagocytosis, chemical defenses   nonspecific defenses  
Mechanical protection   the intact epidermis layer of the skin mucous membranes, the lacrimal apparatus, saliva, mucus, cilia, the epiglottis, and the flow of urine  
Pathogen   disease producing organisms (disruption in homeostasis)  
The second line of defense involves   • internal antimicrobial proteins, • phagocytic and natural killer cells, • inflammation, and • fever.  
Body cells infected with viruses produce proteins called   interferons (IFNs)  
Lymph nodes flow in...   one direction  


   






 
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