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disease processes

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Disease is?   any deviation or interruption from any normal body function.  
Pathology is?   the study of disease.  
Pathogenesis means?   the cause of a disease.  
Symptoms are?   Evidence of disease that is felt by the patient.  
Examples of symptoms include?   lumbodynia (low back pain) N+V(nausea and vomiting or pruritus (itching)  
Acute means?   sudden onset AKA paroxysmal.  
Chronic means?   recurring and/or insidious  
Insidious means?   slow to appear such as Ca(cancer) or AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome  
Idiopathic means?   pertaining to an unknown disease.  
Etiology means?   the study of the cause  
Lesion means?   any abnormal tissue  
Signs are evidence of disease that?   can be seen  
Examples of signs are include?   1. pyrexia (fever) 2. leukocytosis (abnormal condition of white cells. 3. jaundice (yellow discoloration to the skin.  
Syndrome means?   a combination of signs and symptoms  
Dx (Diagnosis) means?   The determination of the nature of a disease.  
Px (Prognosis) means?   the predicted outcome of a disease.  
Sequela means?   the aftermath of a disease.  
Exacerbation means?   to get worse or make worse  
Remission means?   the signs and symptoms of a chronic disease subside.  
Relapse means?   a disease returns.  
Complication means?   a disease develops in a patient already suffering from another disease.  
Terminal means?   a disease that ends in death.  
Mortality means?   the number of deaths caused by a disease.  
Palliative means?   relieving symptoms but not curing.  
Homeostasis is?   a study or balance that the body tries to maintain.  
Any foreign protein (bacteria, virus, fungi, toxins, allergens) that triggers and immune response is called an?   antigen  
Inflammation occurs?   whenever there is trauma.  
Trauma is?   any wound or injury.  
Damaged caused by trauma stimulates the release of a chemical that initiates the inflammatory response is called?   histamine.  
Signs and symptoms of an inflammatory response include?   1. Erythema (redness) 2. Inflammatory exudate (swelling AKA edema. 3. Pain 4. Warmth 5.Pruritus (itching)  
Immunity is the?   ability of the body to defend itself against infectious agents, foreign cells, and cancer cells.  
Examples of trauma include?   1. Abrasion(superficial mechanical damage to the skin AKA=scrape 2. Excoriation(superficial chemical damage to the skin 3. Contusion(bleeding under the skin AKA=bruise 4. Laceration(a cut,rip,or tear)  
Examples of trauma continued?   5. Avulsion (tearing any part of the body away from the whole. 6. FX (fracture) 7. Infection 8. allergic reaction  
Why does the body respond to trauma in this fashion?   The more fluid that is brought to the traumatized area (hyperemia) the faster the healing will occur.  
Suppurative,pyogenic,purulent, and abscess all refer to?   pus  
Pus is primarily made up of?   necrosed leukocytes (dead white blood cells)  
Leukocytes include?   monocytes(phagocytic),neutrophils (phagocytic), basophils (release histamines), eosinophils (allergies), and lymphocytes (produce antibodies)  
A normal response to an antigen is called an?   allergy  
An unusual or exaggerated allergic response to an antigen is called?   anaphylaxis  
An autoimmune disease occurs when?   the immune system attacks the body's healthy tissues.  
Autoimmune diseases are more common in?   women (90%)  
1.5 million Americans have?   Lupus  
Lupus Erythematosus is a?   non-contagious incurable inflammatory autoimmune disease.  
Types of Lupus include?   1. Discoid (DLE) localized 2. Systemic (SLE) whole system  
DLE is characterized by a?   rash on the face, neck and scalp  
SLE (systemic) is also characterized by?   1. Fatigue 2. Cephalalgia,anxiety,+MDD (major Depressive Disorder. 3. Rash with photo sensitivity 4. Arthralgia,myalgia,and alopecia. 5.Lymphadenopathy+splenomegaly 6.Pleurisy 7.Pericarditis,endocarditis + CHF 8. Atherosclerosis. 9. Lupus nephriti  
Dx of Lupus is confirmed with an?   ANA (antinuclear) blood test. antibodies  
Tx (treatment) of Lupus includes?   1.NSAIDS AND SAIDS 2.analgesics 3.Benlysta(1 hr. OP IV Tx q month) 1 hour outpatient intravenous treatment every month.  
Lupus can cause premature death due to?   renal or cardiac failure.  
Other autoimmune diseases include?   1. MS (multiple sclerosis 2. GD (Grave's Disease 3. DM (Diabetes Mellitus type 1) 4. UC (ulcerative colitis) 5. CD (Crohn's Disease) 6. Vitiligo (localized loss of skin pigmentation. 7. RA (rheumatoid arthritis) 8. Scleroderma (hardening of the ski  
HIV stands for?   human immunodeficiency virus  
AIDS stands for?   acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  
The HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus) is primarily transmitted through?   1.Sexual contact(semen and vaginal secretions) 2.Sharing needles(blood) 3.The entry of contaminated body fluids.  
The HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is not transmitted through?   casual contact (shaking hands, hugging, or kissing.  
The average time period between HIV infection and AIDS is?   2 to 8 years.  
The Diagnosis of AIDS is given when the immune system has been damaged to the point that?   opportunistic infections occur and/or a CD4 T lymphocyte count < 200.  
Opportunistic infections associated with AIDS include?   1. TB (tuberculosis) 2. Pneumocystis (carinii) pneumonia)PCP. 3.CA (Candida albicans) 4. CMV (cytomegalo virus)causes blindness. 5.KS (Kaposi's sarcoma)skin cancer.  
Blood tests to detect the HIV antibodies in the blood include?   1.ELISA 2.Western blot  
Treatment for the HIV and AIDS include?   HAART(highly active antiretrovial therapy  
Immunity caused by the body creating antibodies is called?   active immunity.  
Active immunity can be achieved by?   Immunization AKA (inoculation or vaccination (vaccine)  
A vaccine (immunizations, inoculation) is an?   attenuated (crippled) or inactivated (dead) antigen.  
An attenuated or inactivated antigen does not cause disease but will?   trigger the B lymphocytes (B-cells) to produce antibodies.  
Antibodies are microscopic immune proteins that bind to antigens and?   tag the antigens for destruction by the immune system.  
Antibodies are?   specialized  
Specialized means that?   only a specific antigens (virus, bacteria, fungus, etc.) will be tagged.  
Antibody production is the only mechanism that can?   defeat a pathogenic virus.  
Multiple exposures to an attenuated or inactivated antigen can cause a better and longer lasting immunity which is the reason for?   booster immunizations.  
Immunity caused by receiving antibodies from another is called?   passive immunity.  
An example of passive immunity is?   colostrum (breast feeding for the first 2-5 days.  
Breast feeding has been shown to reduce the incidence of?   DM (diabetes mellitus), heart disease, obesity, eczema, lymphomas, and SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome).  
A natural immunity inherited genetically from your ancestors is called an?   innate immunity  
A disease that can be transmitted from one person to another is called?   communicable (contagious)  
Virulence means?   an organism's power to overcome the defenses of it's host.  
Bacterial pathogens include?   1. Strep (strep throat). 2. Staph (impetigo-skin infection) 3.Salmonella (gastroenteritis) 4. E. coli (urinary tract infections. and gastroenteritis. 5. GC (sexually transmitted disease- gonorrhea  
Bacterial pathogens include?   6. C. diff (clostridium differential) extreme diarrhea 7. Diphtheria (mycocarditis) inflammation of the myocardium and (neuritis) inflammation of the nerves.  
Many bacterial infections can be treated with?   antibiotic therapy  
Antibiotic means?   pertaining to against life (bacterial)  
Approximately 500 different types of bacteria have been identified living in the average?   human mouth  
The average human has approximately ---- living in and on the human body?   one million billion bacteria  
Viral pathogens include?   1.HAV,HBV,HCV (hepatitis A,B,& C complications(cirrhosis) 2.Influenza(flu) virus (A+B) AKA pneumonia 3.Coryza(200 viral strains) AKA common cold 4.Varicella AKA chicken pox (pneumonia and cerebral edema 5.Herpes Zoster-AKA shingles extreme pain & scar  
Viral pathogens continued?   6.Rubeola AKA measles (pneumonia) 7.Parotitis AKA mumps (meningitis inflammation of the meninges) and orchitis (inflammation of the testes) 8.Rubella AKA German measles (congenital cataracts,deafness,heart defects,and mental retardation.  
Viral pathogens continued?   9.Pertussis AKA whooping cough (100 day cough) 10.Polio myelitis AKA motor paralysis (inability to move) 11.HIV (opportunistic disease)  
Many viral infections do not provide a lasting immunity such as?   Influenza (flu) or coryza (common cold)  
Antibiotics have?   no affect against viral infections  
It is appropriate to prescribe an antibiotic for a viral infection when the patient?   1.is immuncompromised.(children, elderly, AIDS, chemotherapy. 2.is afflicted with a chronic disease.  
Even though a virus is causing the infection, an antibiotic may be prescribed to protect the individual against?   a secondary bacterial infection  
Infestation means?   to live in or on as a parasite  
A parasite is an organism that?   benefits at the expense of the host.  
Helminths (worm infestations) include?   1.Roundworms 2.Pin worms 3.Tapeworms  
Dx (diagnosis)of helminths is confirmed with an?   O+P (ova and parasite) test.  
Dermatophytosis refers to an?   1. Tinea corporis (ringworm) 2. Tinea pedis (athletes feet) 3. Tinea cruris (jock itch) 4. Tinea capitis (scalp) 5. Tinea unguium (nails)  
(Tx) Treatment for dermatophytosis includes?   anti-fungal medications  
Micro-organisms that are not pathogenic are called?   normal flora  
E. coli (Escherichia coli) in the large intestine produce?   vitamin K  
Many viruses are?   harmless to humans  
Fungi (yeast) are needed to make?   bread, beer, and cheese  
The most effective way to prevent the transmission of pathogens is?   proper hand washing  
The number of new cases of a disease in a population is called?   incidence  
The number of existing cases of a disease is called?   prevalence  
A disease that always occurs at low levels in a population is called an?   endemic  
A disease that occurs at high levels in a population is called an?   epidemic  
An epidemic that spreads over large areas worldwide is called a?   pandemic  
A disease that suddenly occurs in unexpected numbers in a limited area and then subsides is called an?   outbreak  
The separation of persons who may or may not be infected from healthy people until the period of infectious risk is passed is called?   quarantine  
CDC(P) stands for?   Center for Disease Control and Prevention  
The incidence of obesity, cancer, heart disease, and low immune response is associated with?   sleep deprivation  
The terms neoplasm, neoplasia, and tumor are used to describe?   Ca(cancer)  
A change in the biochemistry of a gene, resulting in the production of abnormal cells is called a?   mutation  
A neoplasma (tumor) that invades other tissues is called?   malignant  
The terms carcinoma and sarcoma refer to?   malignancies  
The ability to generate tumors at distant sites is called?   metastasis (metastatic)  
A tumor that does not invade or metastasize is called?   benign  
Benign tumors include?   1.Lipoma AKA fatty tumor 2.Myoma AKA muscle tumor (fibroid tumor(s) of the uterus. AKA leiomyoma(s) 3.Angioma AKA Birthmark 4.Nevus AKA mole 5. Papilloma AKA Polyp wart (verucca) 6.Adenoma AKA glandular tumor  
Carcinogenic agents include? UVA and UVB(ultraviolet radiation) from sunlight or tanning beds increases the risk of?   skin malignancies  
UV (ultraviolet light) light also destroys collagen causing?   wrinkles and accelerates the aging process  
2.Tobacco use increases the risk of?   oral,pulmonary,laryngeal,pharyngeal, esophageal,colorectal,pancreatic, hepatic,renal,gastric,uterine,and bladder malignancies.  
3. Poor diet(insufficient fruits, and vegetables) and obesity increases the risk of?   esophageal,gastric,breast and colorectal malignancies.  
4.STDs(sexually transmitted diseases) especially the HPV(human 4.papilloma virus),early sexual activity, and multiple sexual partners increases the risk of?   cervical malignancies  
5.Estrogen therapy such as BCPS(birth control pills)or HRT(hormone replacement therapy) can cause an?   increase incidence of breast malignancies.  
6.Chemicals such as ----- increase the risk of cancer?   asbestos(mesothelioma,radon, (lung). the benzene (leukemia).  
The number of chemicals in commercial products has reached?   80,000  
The EPA(environmental protection agency) has required testing on?   200 and restricted 5  
7. Environmental agents such as?   air and water pollution.  
8. Genetic predisposition such as?   breast,ovarian, and bladder malignancies.  
9.Alcohol(1 drink/day) increases the risk of?   breast,liver,rectum,mouth,throat, and esophagus malignancies in women.  
Signs and symptoms of Ca(cancer) include?   Change in bowel or bladder habits. A sore that does not heal. Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere.  
Signs and symptoms of cancer continued include?   Indigestion (dyspepsia) dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) Obvious change in a verucca (wart) or nevus (mole) Nagging cough or hoarseness (dysphonia)  
Pain is USUALLY NOT?   as early symptom of cancer.  
The Dx(diagnosis) of cancer usually confirmed with a?   Bx(biopsy)  
Types of biopsies include?   1. Frozen sections 2. Needle Bx (biopsy)  
Exfoliative cytology which refers to?   a. Scrapings b. Washings c. Secretions  
Ca staging (0,1,2,3,4) refers to the?   size and spread  
Ca grading (0.1.2.3.4) refers to the?   aggressiveness  
Tx (treatment) of cancer includes?   1. anti-neoplastic medications AKA "chemotherapy." 2. Radiation therapy 3. Hormonal therapy 4. surgery  
Hereditary diseases are also called?   genetic (familial) diseases  
Hereditary diseases are caused by a?   defective gene(s)  
Genes represent the?   blueprint of how the body is constructed.  
The blueprint is also expressed in an abbreviation called?   DNA  
Genes are found in groups called?   chromosomes  
Normally, each human has ---- chromosomes?   46  
Each parent donates?   twenty three chromosomes to each child  
Hereditary diseases include?   1. Polydactyl which refers to extra fingers or toes. 2.Achondroplasia which causes dwarfism 3.PKU (phenylketouria)which is a dietary enzyme deficiency.  
Enzymes are?   chemical catalysts.  
Catalysts refer to?   anything that causes reactions to occur.  
Neonates are routinely tested for PKU in the hospital because left untreated this condition causes?   MR (mental retardation)  
Tx (treatment) for PKU includes?   A modified diet of no protein(milk, meat,eggs,nuts,legumes,and aspartame).  
Galactosemia can cause?   liver,eye,kidney and brain damage.  
Tx (treatment) for galactosemia includes?   diet modification (no lactose-dairy)  
SCA (sickle cell anemia) occurs when?   erythrocytes are produced with a sickle shape that inhibits respiration and causes agglutination.  
Agglutination refers to the?   clumping together of the deformed erythrocytes.  
Agglutination can cause?   SCC (sickle cell crisis  
Signs and symptoms of sickle cell crisis (SCC) include?   Vascular occlusions (infarcts), tissue ischemia (O2 deprivation),and necrosis (death), thoracodynia (chest pain) dyspnea (difficulty breathing) hemolytic anemia sever pain and organ failure  
SCA (sickle cell anemia) primarily affects?   African Americans  
Dx (diagnosis) of SCA (sickle cell anemia) is confirmed with?   microscopic examination of the RBCs (red blood cells)  
Tx (treatment) for SCA (sickle cell anemia) includes?   a. Blood transfusions b. Analgesics c. O2 (oxygen) therapy  
Albinism occurs when there is an absence of?   melanin  
Achromatopsia which is?   color blindness  
Hemophilia is a coagulopathy that occurs when there is an absence of a?   clotting factor  
CF (cystic fibrosis) is characterized by?   pulmonary and pancreatic dysfunction  
DS (Down's Syndrome) occurs when there is a?   trisomy of chromosome 21  
The incidence of DS (Down's Syndrome) is higher in children born to mothers over the age of?   35  
Characteristics of DS (Down's Syndrome) include?   a. mild to profound MR (mental retardation) based on IQ (intelligence quotient) b. eyes appear slanted and wide set. c.protruding tongue d.short flat nose e.short stature f.very affectionate g. a straight crease extends across the palms of the hands  
Characteristics of DS (Down's Syndrome) include continued?   h. The little fingers are shorter than normal. i. shortened life span due to higher incidence of heart defects, respiratory infections, and leukemia.  
The Dx (diagnosis) of genetic diseases can be obtained by performing an?   amniocentesis or CVS (chorionic villus sampling)  
Congenital defect(s) are usually noticeable at?   birth or shortly after  
Common causes of congenital defect(s) include?   1.Hypoxia (deficient O2) 2. Maternal infection 3. Drug use 4. Malnutrition 5. Radiation  
Congenital defects include?   1. CP (cerebral palsy) 2. CHD (congenital heart defect) 3. SB (spinabifida) 4. CL (cleft lip) 5. CP (clef palate) 6. EA (esophageal atresia)  
The fat soluble vitamins include?   A, D, E, and K  
In large doses (supplements), fat soluble vitamins can be?   toxic (poisonous)  
Vitamin A toxicity can cause?   cephalalgia,vomiting, and peeling skin.  
Vitamin D toxicity can cause?   renal failure  
Vitamin E toxicity can cause?   hemorrhage.  
Vitamin K toxicity can cause?   anemia  
The water soluble vitamin include?   B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 (pyridoxine) B12 (cobalamin) C (ascorbic acid) Folic acid (folate) Biotin (B7)  
Excess water soluble vitamins are?   excreted in the urine  
AN (Anorexia Nervosa)is a psychogenic disorder which manifests by creating an aversion to?   food  
AN (Anorexia Nervosa) leads to?   wasting away AKA emaciation (cachexia).  
AN (Anorexia Nervosa) is characterized by?   1. Muscle atrophy 2. Gaunt face 3. Protruding bones  
A primary cause of Anorexia Nervosa is the?   nation's obsession with thinness.  
Anorexia Nervosa primarily affects young women but is now on the increase of?   males and preteens  
Anorexia Nervosa causes a misconception of?   body size  
The patient with Anorexia Nervosa denies that she is?   thin and perceives herself as overweight  
The patient with Anorexia Nervosa becomes a?   strict calorie counter  
The patient with (AN) Anorexia Nervosa may induce vomiting after eating and use?   laxatives excessively  
The patient with (AN) Anorexia Nervosa can exhibit?   irritability,anxiety,MDD (major depressive disorder), and amenorrhea (no menstruation)  
Tx (treatment) of (AN) Anorexia Nervosa includes?   psychotherapy and hospitalization  
Relapse of AN (anorexia nervosa) is common and?   mortality (death) rates are high.  
Bulimia is characterized by?   bingeing (gorge) and purging (induce vomiting)  
Bulimia primarily effects?   young women and girls who look average in weight or are obese.  
Signs and symptoms of bulimia include?   1. Halitosis (bad breath) 2. Tooth decay (dental caries) 3. Pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat) caused by HCl(hydrochloric acid) from chronic purging (vomiting)  
Tx (treatment) of bulimia include?   psychotherapy and antidepressants  
BMI means?   Body Mass Index  
Causes of obesity include?   1. sedentary lifestyle 2. excessive fat and processed sugar intake.  
Complications of obesity include?   1. MDD (major depressive disorder) 2. HTN (hypertension) 3. cardiomegaly (enlarged heart) 4. Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries caused by fatty plague 5. hepatic (liver) disease 6. DM (diabetes mellitus) 7. GB (gall bladder) disease  
Complications of obesity include continued?   8. Hypo-ventilation( shallow breathing) 9. Somnolence (excessive sleeping) 10. Varicose veins 11. Diaphramatic hernia (hiatal hernia) 12. OA (osteoarthritis) 13. Cancer of the breast,prostate, colon and rectum, gall bladder, and uterus.  
Obesity is rarely caused by a?   hypo-active thyroid  
Tx (treatment) for obesity includes?   1. lifestyle change (food/exercise) 2. Appetite suppressants 3. Gastric bypass surgery  
When alcohol (ETOH)consumption causes disturbances in any major life function such as?   health,family,friends,profession, or legal  
Manifestations of alcoholism include?   1. Gradual onset 2. Life revolves around drinking 3. Denial that a problem exists 4. Resents discussion about drinking 5. Resists treatment 6. Surreptitious (sneaks) drinking 7. Drinks early in the day 8. Gulps drinks 9. Blackouts (amnesia)  
Physical effects of alcoholism include?   1. flushed face 2. gastritis (inflammation of the stomach) 3. Pancreatitis (inflammation of pancreas. 4. Gynecomastia (breast development in males. 5. Poor coagulation (clotting) causeing. a. Ecchymoses (brusing) b. Epistaxis (nose bleeds)  
Physical effects of alcoholism include continued?   6. Esophageal varices (engorged and fragile veins of the esophagus. 7. Cirrhosis (degeneration of the liver. 8. Ascites (fluid accumulation and the abdomen) 9. Cardiac arrhythmia's  
Physical effects of alcoholism include continued?   10. Wernicke's encephalopathy causing a. impaired judgement b. poor concentration c. morning after tremors d. MDD (major depressive disorder, violence, and irrational behavior e. Nystagmus (rapid oscillation of the eyeballs f. DTs (delirium tremors)  
DTs (delirium tremors) are characterized by?   delirium (confused), illusions,vivid hallucinations, restlessness, diaphoresis (profuse sweatiness), and the shakes 11. Hepatic coma.  
Tx (treatment) of alcoholism includes?   a. early intervention by family, friends, employer, physician and clergy with continued attention. b. AA (alcoholic's Anonymous) very successful program when the alcoholic is willing to be treated.  
The earliest weeks of pregnancy (gestation)   are most critical  
Neonates are born?   exhibiting DTs (delirium tremors)  
FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome is the most common cause of?   MR (mental retardation)  
2 cocktails in one day can cause the?   destruction of fetal neurons  


   






 
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