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Prime muscle movers, nerve innervations, Dermatomes

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

What muscles does the Deep Peroneal Nerve innervate?   Extensor digitorum Longus and Brevis Extensor Hallucis Longus-DF+extends great toe Tibialis Anterior- DF+inversion  
What action and nerve for the Peroneus Tertius?   Deep Peroneal nerve and DF+eversion(I-head of 5th MT)  
What muscles does the Superficial Peroneal Nerve innervate?   Peroneus longus and Brevis-DF+eversion The Peroneal Tubercle seperates the 2 muscles!  
Tibial Nerve, what muscles?   Posterior Tibia- PF+inversion Gastro+Soleus,Plantris- PF+knee flexion Flexor Dig + Hallicis Longus-(PF+inversion) Popliteus-Knee flextion(unlocks knee)  
What prime muscle(s) do knee extension? What Nerve?   Femoral Nerve Quads-knee extension and hip flexion  
What MMT Verterbrae level is knee extension?   L3 and L4  
What prime muscle(s) do knee flexion? What nerve innervate?   Hamstrings-L5 S1 S2 Sciatic Nerve (biceps fem short head comon peroneal) Popliteus-tib nerve Gastroc-Tib Nerve  
What Nerve wraps around the Fibular head? If damage to that Nerve, what would you see?(what would happen?)   Common Peroneal Nerve Damaged-foot drop  
What is Pes Cavus?   Abnormal high foot arch  
What is Pes Planus?   Flat feet  
What does Valgus mean?   Distal end away from midline, knee tended to knock"Knocked knees"  
Hallux Valgus(Valgrum)   Lateral deviation of the phalanx, great toe. Usually Bunion is the cause, lateral bunion.  
Normal Foot position to observe   Slight Plantar flextion and inversion Dorsum(top) of foot is domed shaped. Abnormal- Spastic flat feet, Dorsiflexion and eversion. )obvserve pt seated first!)  
PROM for DF, PF, inversion, eversion, adduction and abduction of the footankle.   DF-20 degrees PF-50 Forefoot add-20/abd-10 1st MT joint-flexion 45 extension-70-90degrees  
Dorsi-Flexors muscles   Prime mover-Anterior Tibialis(+inversion) Assits-Extensor hallucis+digit longus, Peroneus Tertius(+everison+Deep Peroneal nerve)  
Plantar-Flexors muscles   Prime movers-Gastroc+Soleus Assits-Tib posterior, Flexor Dig+hallucis longus,and Peroneal Longus and Brevis  
What makes up the Popiteal Fossa?   Superiorly-Biceps Fem tendon, Semimemb, Semitend. Inferior border-the TWO heads of the Gastroc. Tibial nere and Common Peroneal nerves, popliteal artery are here. BAKERS Cysts are here also!  
What is the ATFL?   Anterior Talo-Fibular Ligament, or ATFL for short. This is the ligament that is most commonly torn in ankle sprains.  
What and where is the Deltoid Ligament of the foot/ankle?   Collateral lig, medial side-triangular shaped. Strengthens medial side of ankle. strongest ligament in body,it is commonly torn.  
Planar Aponeurosis   plantar fascia, increaes stablity during weight bearing. Over pronation-ligs lengthen and OUCH=Plantar fisciitis!  
What is Intrinsic muscles?   both attachments distal to ankle joint, or muscles attachments are below ankle line. Originate on the tarsal bones!  
What is Extrinsic?   attachments are above ankle joint. Originate on the leg!  
Where is the ATFL   sits in sinus torsi->the groove lateraly on dorsum. Extensor Digitior Brevis sits. Checks-inversion(Anterior Drawer test)  
What makes up the Hind foot?   Talus and Calcaneus  
What makes up the midfoot?   cuboid, 3 cuneform,and navicular (pronantion here)  
What makes up the forefoot   MT and phalanges. Adduction ans abduction here during inversion and eversion)  
What motions do Pronaton of the ankle/foot?   DF, eversion, and abduction  
What is the Talocrural?   ANKLE JOINT! Tib,Fib,Talus Uniaxial(hinge) joint, AKA Mortise joint and Tenon joint does PF&DF Most injured joint in body  
Where on the plantar surface do we bear weight?   1st MT, 5th MT, and Calcaneus (like a triangle)  
What is the keystone bone in the Medial longitudinal arch of the foot?   the TALUS! bc it accepts the weight from the Tibia(mid-stance during gait)  
What is the keystone bone in the Transverse arch of the foot?   2nd Cuneiform. 1st Cunei, 2nd Cunei, 3rd Cunei, the Cuboid,  
Styloid Process of the foot   on 5th MT(laterally) Peroneus Brevis attachment. Joneus fracture-HERE  
What is the largest joint in the body?   Knee joint! Synovial hinge joint Rotation occurs bc medial condyle has 1/2 inch mor surface than the lateral condyle.  
LCL inserts on Fibula   Fibual is NOT part of the knee joint  
Cruciate Ligs   ACL and PCL Provide stability in the Sagittal plane are w/in the jiont capsule  
ACL   Tight during extension of knee. Holds tibia from shifting foward *common injury Anterior Cruciate Lig Injured w Extension and Rotation PF and rotate=POP!  
PCL   Posterior Cruciate Lig *not commonly injured Tightens during knee flexion Injured w Kne flexed  
Collateral ligs   MCL, LCL Provide stability in Frontal plane  
MCL   Medial Collateral lig Flat broad fibers Medial meniscus attach here(so MCL tear=MM tear)  
LCL   Lateral Collateral lig Thin and cord like. Attaches 2 Fib head  
How many Bursa's at the knee are there?   13  
What is Pes Anerine?   "Goose foot" Sartorius, Gracilis, and Semitendinous. Medial support to the knee Runs right nar MCL when standing  
Describe the Screw Home Mechanism   Femur condyles surface are greater than the Tibial condyles. Flex to extension=Femur GLIDES posteriorly on Tib, as Tib rolls into extension. During last 20 degrees of WB extension-Femur SPINS medially o Tibia. roll,gliding posteriorly, spins med.  
Screw Home Mechanism in W/B position   Femur rotates medially on Tibia as knee moves into last 20 degrees of extension. Rolling&gliding (post) and rotates medially  
Screw Home Mechanism in Non- W/B position   Tib rotates laterally on Femur, the last few degrees lock the knee into extension. THIS is the Screw home Mechanism!  
Foot/Ankle Deltoid Lig   Tendernes/pain=tear from eversion ankle sprain. Posteriorly to the Medial malleolus. With in the dep depression. TOM-Tibialis posterior tendon-invert+PF DICK-Flexor Digit longus tendon-flex toes AN-post tib artery, tib nerve HARRY- Flexor hall longu  
Terible Triad AKA Un-happy trio   ACL, MCL, MM  
Equinis(equinus) Foot   (horse's ft) Hindfoot is fixed in PF.  
Steppage   ft and toes are lifted through hip and knees. Flexio to excessive heights. Foot will slap. DF weakness, decreased control.  
What causes Flat back   abnormal decrease in Lumbar curve. Post pelvic tilt Lordosis decreasion in lumbar reg.  
Angle of Torsion   Angle is transverse plane 15-25 degrees  
Tibialis Anterior Muscle, if weak what nerve and sign?   Deep Peroneal nerve-DF and INverts ankle. Damage? Foot drop. Ecenticly lowers the foot into PF, just after heel strike.  
Lateral lig of ankle   95% of ankle sprains are here 3 parts  
Ligs of the lateral ankle/foot jobs   ATF-check inversion Post Talofibular- checks DF Calcaneofibular-checks inversion  
How many tarsals are there in the foot? MT's?   7-tarsals-calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuboid, and 3 cuneiorms. MT-5 Phalanges-5  
Spring lig, what is its job?   to support the medial longitu. arch. IMPORTANT located medially, calcanus to he navicular.  
Miserable misalignment syndrome    
High ankle sprains, where does injury occur?   at inferior Tib/fib joint. Bones separate(dastasis). PAINFUL! 3x-longer rehab time.  
Lateral Malleolus   High Rate of FX. Eversion ankle sprain. Ususally Medial malleolus is injured also.  
Susentaculum Tali, where and what lig attaches?   Medially, on the calcaneus. A bumb where Spring lig attaches.  
Pes planus boney land marks on foot   Head of Talus-prominent Navicular tubercle, irritation if to prominent  
What is another name for the Talocrural joint?   aka ankle joint is also called: Mortise joint and tenon joint  
Causes of Foot drop   compartment syndrome, muscular dystrophy,CNS diseases(ALS),MS, stroke, nerve damage of diabetes, hip/knee surgery, Pressure 2 Peroneal nerve (crossing legs can temp do this). May cause steppage gait, Floot slapping,  
How many joints does the great toe have and what are they?   only 2! MTP-metatarsophalangeal joint. IP-interphalangeal joint all lessers toes have 3 joints.  
Where and what are the 3 joints of the toes?   MTP,PIP-proximal interphalangeal, DIP distal interphalangeal.  


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