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Worsham Chem Q1

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The study of the nature of matter & the changes that matter undergoes.   Chemistry  
Matter   Anything that possesses mass & occupies space.  
Nature of matter   1) composition of a particular kind of matter 2) forces holding its parts together 3) Its observable properties  
What are the two types of chemical bonds?   1) Ionic bonds 2) Covalent bonds  
What is a physical change?   A change that does not cause a change in the chemical composition of a material.  
Melting ice, Boiling water, and Freezing water are examples of...   Physcial change  
What is a chemical change?   A change that results in the formation of a new substance.  
Decomp. of proteins, Cremation, and embalming are examples of...   Chemical change  
What is energy?   The ability of a system or material to do work.  
Kinetic energy is   energy in motion  
Falling water, falling objects, flowing electricity are examples of...   Kinetic energy  
Potenial energy is   stored energy  
Stored chemical energy in food, a battery, a drawn bow are examples of...   Potenial energy  
Inorganic chemistry is   the study of compounds USUALLY containing elements other than carbon.  
The 4 primary classes of compounds are...   acids, bases, salts, and oxides  
Organic chemistry is...   The study of certain carbon compounds  
Biochemistry is...   The study of compounds produced by living organisms.  
Proteins, carbs, and lipids are the 3 primary compounds studied in...   Biochemistry  
Embalming chemistry is...   The study of those types of matter and changes in matter related to the disinfection & preservation of human remains. Certian aspects of all three of the major divisions of chemistry are incorporated.  
The study of those physical & chemical changes in the human body that are caused by the process of death.   Thanatochemistry (tha-nat-o-chemistry)  
What are the common set of units used by all scientists?   International System of Units or SI Unit or the Metric System  
The standard unit of length is   the meter  
The symbol for the meter is   m  
1 meter is equal to   39.37"  
The standard unit of volume is   liter  
The symbol for the liter is   L  
1 liter is equal to   1.06 quarts  
The standard unit of mass is   kilogram  
The symbol for the kilogram   kg  
454 grams are equal to   1lb.  
The standard unit of heat is   calorie  
The symbol for the calorie is   cal  
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of water 1 degree c at 15 degrees c.   calorie  
Calorie=kilocalorie   1kcal=1000cal=1Cal  
A calorie is too small a unit so a ______ is used   kilocalorie (Cal)  
M is the symbol for...   Mega  
The exponential expression for Mega is   10 to the 6th power  
k or K is the symbol for...   Kilo  
The exponential expression for Kilo is   10 to the 3rd power  
d is the symbol for...   deci  
The exponential expression for deci is   10 to the -1 power  
c is the symbol for...   Centi  
The exponential expression for Centi is   10 to the -2 power  
m is the symbol for...   Milli  
The exponential expression for Milli is   10 to the -3 power  
u is the symbol for...   Micro  
The exponential expression for Micro is   10 to the -6 power  
n is the symbol for...   Nano  
The exponential expression for Nano is   10 to the -9 power  
The law of conservation of mass states...   Matter is neither created nor destroyed  
The law of conservation of energy states...   Energy is neither created nor destroyed  
The law of conservation of energy and the 1st law of thermodynamics are the same, T/F   True  
physical property   a characteristic that can be observed w/out altering the chemical composition of a substance  
color, odor, taste and feel are examples of   physical properties  
3 typical states of matter   solid, liquid and gas  
melting point   the temperature at which a substance changes from the solid state to the liquid state  
the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid   freezing point  
the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas   boiling point  
solubility   the measure of how well 2 substances mix  
the relationship between an object's mass and volume occupied by that mass   Density  
What is the equation for density   d=m/v  
Specific gravity   the ratio of the mass of the substance to the mass of equal volume of water at the same temp  
What units are used in specific gravity   none. because it is a ratio of 2 masses  
Chemical property   characteristic that can be observed when the substance is interacting with other forms of matter the interaction results in an alteration of the chemical composition of the substance  
examples for chemical properties are   burning=match+oxygen; sodium+water=hydorgen gas & sodium hydroxide  
Physical change   a process that manifests a physical propery  
Chemical change   a process that manifests a chemical property. Forms new substances with their own chemical & physical properties  
what are the stages of matter?   solid, liquid and gas  
heat of fusion   specific quantity of heat that is absorbed to convert 1 gram of solid to 1 of liquid at the substances melting point  
how much heat is required to change 1 gram of ice to 1 gram of water?   80 calories  
heat of vaporization   amount of heat needed to change 1 gram of a substance from the liquid to the gaseous state at the boiling point  
how much heat is required to change 1 gram of water to water vapor   540 calories  
exothermic   the process of releasing heat  
endothermic   the process of absorbing heat  
sublimation   change in state directly from solid to gas  
entropy   measure of the amount of disorder or randomness  
plaster of Paris is an example of   exothermic  
dry ice and heating iodine crystals are examples of   sublimation  
which state has the most entropy   gas  
which state has the lease entropy   solid  
what are the properties of gases   compressibility, expansivity and diffusibility  
no fixed volume but occupies the entire space of the container, this decribes what   the volume of a gas  
pressure   force per unit area  
1 atmoshpere is equal to   760mm Hg or 760 torr  
what is the purpose of the gas laws   describe the relationship between a gases perssure, volume and temperature  
Boyle's Law   relationship between the volume of a quantity of gas and its pressure when the temperature is constant.  
the relationship between volume and pressure is _____ in Boyle's law   inversely proportional  
breathing is an example of   Boyle's Law  
Charles' Law   relationship between a gases volume and temperature when the pressure is constant  
the ______ scale is used in Charles' Law   Kelvin scale  
the relationship between volume and temperature is _______ in Charles' Law   directly proportional  
an incubator is an example of   Charles' Law  
the Kelvin scale is also known as   the absolute temperature scale  
degree Celsius + 273 =   Kelvin  
what are the properties of liquids   takes shape of the container it is in, maintians its own volume, practically incompressible, evaporation, and equilibrium  
evaporation   transition from liquid to gas (endothermic)  
equilibrium   when 2 opposing rates are equal  
equilibrium vapor pressure   the pressure exerted by a vapor when it is in equilibrium with its liquid  
as temperature increases   vapor pressure increases, therefore they are directly proportional  
boiling   rapid passage of liquid particles to the vapor state by forming bubbles  
normal boiling point   the BP at 1 atmosphere pressure, 760mm Hg or 760 torr  
what is the BP of water on all three scales   100 degrees Celsius, 212 degrees F, 373K  
what if the FP of water on all three scales   0 degrees Celsius, 32 degrees F, 273K  
properties of solids   particles are held tightly together, deginate shape & volume, nearly incompressible, nearly no expansivity, low entropy.  
melting   when heat is added to a solid, kinetic energy of the particles increases until the solid breaks apart  
heat of fusion   the amount of heat that is absorbed to convert 1 gram of solid to 1 gram of liquid at the MP  
matter can be divided into   pure substances and mixtures  
pure substances are classifed as   elements and compounds  
elements   simple substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical means  
oxygen is an   element  
water is a   compound  
a mixture is   2 or more substances not chemically united  
mixtures are classified as   homogens and heterogenis  
homogens   true solutions  
heterogenis   no uniform composition  
properties of compounds   elements join together chemically in a definate proportion by mass, can be decomposed by chemical changes  
Law of Definite Proportions   states that when 2 or more elements combine, they will always be in a fixed or definite proportion by mass  
what are the 4 types of compounds most important to us in inorganic chemistry   acids, oxides, salts, bases  
properties of mixtures   formed with varying proportions of their components, can be separated by physical changes  
an example of a homogeneous mixture is   arterial solution  
an example of a heterogeneous mixture   sand and iron filings  
the Law of Conservation of Mass states   matter is niether created nor destroyed  
the Law of Conservation of Energy states   energy is niether created nor destroyed  
the Law of Conservation of Energy is also known as   1st Law of Thermodynamics  
hydrolosis   water breaking down  
proteins break down into   amino acids  
amino acids break down into   amines and organic acids  
amines break down into   ammonia and hydrogen gas  
organic acids break down into   carbon dioxide, water & oxygen  
H   hydorgen  
He   helium  
Li   lithium  
Be   beryllium  
B   boron  
C   carbon  
N   nitrogen  
O   oxygen  
F   fluorine  
Ne   neon  
Mg   magnesium  
Al   aluminum  
Si   silicon  
P   phosphorous  
S   sulfur  
Cl   chlorine  
Ar   argon  
K   potassium  
Ca   calcium  
Fe   iron  
Cu   cooper  
Zn   zinc  
As   arsenic  
Br   bromine  
Ag   silver  
I   iodine  
Au   gold  
Hg   mercury  
Pb   lead  
What does amu stand for   atomic mass unit  
what charge does an electron have   negitive  
what charge does a proton have   positive  
what charge does a neutron have   neutral  
what particales are located in the nucleus   neutrons and protons  
what is the name of group 1A   alkali metals or reactive metals  
what is the name of group IIA   alkaline Earth metals  
what is the name of group IIIA   Boron Group  
what is the name of group IVA   Carbon Group  
what is the name of group VA   Nitrogen Group  
what is teh name of group VIA   Oxygen Group  
what is the name of group VIIA   Halogen Group (salt forming)  
what is the name of group VIIIA   noble gases or inert gases  
which group is non-reactive and the most stabile   group VIIIA the noble gases/inert gases  
group A elements are also known as   representative elements  
what do the periods represent   the number of energy levels an atom has  
what do the group numbers represent   the number of electrons in the outer most energy level  
where is the atomic number located on the periodic table of elements   above the symbol  
where is the atomic mass located on the periodic table of elements   under the symbol  
how do you know how many protons an element has   the atomic number  
how do you know how many electrons an element has   the atomic number  
how do you know how many neutrons an element has   round the atomic mass to the nearest whole number, the atomic mass-the atomic number=number of neutrons  
what is the equation that will tell you many electrons are in an energy level   2n to the second power (2, 8, 18, 32)  
how do you find the valence electron   the group number  
how is the atomic number symbolized   the letter z  
how are the estimated paths of electrons labeled   s, p, d, f  
the total electrons in the outermost energy level is the   valence electrons  
how many types does an s-orbital have, what is the max electrons that can be held   1 type with a max of 2  
how many types does a p-orbital have, what is the max electrons that can be held   3 types with a max of 6  
how many types does a d-orbital have, what is the max electrons that can be held   5 types with a max of 10  
how many types does a f-orbital have, what is the max electrons that can be held   7 types with a max of 14  
the first energy level has what orbital   only one s-orbital  
every energy level has one ____   s-orbital  


   






 
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