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Block II drugs- UND

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Ibuprofen class   NSAID  
Ibuprofen action   competitively inhibits COX1&2 and is slightly more selective for COX-1. These enzymes catalyze the reaction of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin  
Methotrexate class   antineoplastic  
Methotrexate action   antimetabolite, Methotrexate competitively and reversibly inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR); Folic acid is required for DNA synthesis.  
Prednisone class   corticosteroid  
Prednisone action   suppress inflammation and the normal immune response, induce apoptosis of lymphocytes  
Nitroglycerin class   Nitrate Vasodilator  
Nitroglycerin action   Relaxation of vascular smooth muscle causes peripheral pooling  
Imitrex class   Vascular headache suppressant  
Imitrex action   Selective agonist at specific vascular serotonin receptors causing vasoconstriction in large intracranial arteries  
Prostoglandin E1 class   ductus arteriosus patency adjuncts  
Prostoglandin E1 action   Directly relaxes smooth muscle of the ductus arteriosus; Temporary maintenance of patent ductus arteriosus  
Dobutamine class   β1-Adrenergic agonist  
Dobutamine action   Selective β1-Adrenergic agonist (leads to increased myocardial contractility and increased stroke volume with modest increase of heart rate)  
Atenelol class   antiadrenergics, B-blocker  
Atenelol action   selective B1-receptor antagonist, thus heart rate and contractility are decreased  
Oxycodon class   analgesic, narcotic  
Oxycodon action   opioid receptor agonist; to hyperpolarization and decreased activity of neural cells  
Aspirin class   NSAID  
Aspirin action   irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX 1 & 2); decrease prostaglandin synthesis  
Simvastatin class   antihyperlipidemic  
Simvastatin action   inhibit HMG-CoA reductase; increase LDL receptors  
Acetaminophen class   non-narcotic analgesic, antipyretic  
Acetaminophen action   Act on hypothalmic heat regulating center for antipyresis, elevates pain threshold  
Norepinephrine class   Vasoconstrictor  
Norepinephrine Action   a1- adrenergic receptor agonist, leads to Ca2+ release from ER causing vascular smooth muscle contraction  
Norepinephrine uses   Life threatening hypotension not caused by hypovolemia. Nasal decongestant  
Clonidine class   Sympatholytic  
Clonidine action   a2 adrenergic agonist; inhibits vasomotor center in medulla oblongata reducing sympathetic activity  
Clonidine uses   Tx of HTN  
Prazosin class   Alpha-blocker  
Prazosin action   a1 adrenergic antagonist; reduces NE/E binding to a1 receptors in vasculature causing vasodilation  
Prazosin uses   Tx. HTN  
Captopril class   ACE inhibitors  
Captopril action   Inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) reducing production of angiotensin II (a direct vasoconstrictor); Inhibits degradation of bradykinin enhancing production of vasodilatory prostaglandins.  
Captopril uses   Tx. of HTN  
Losartan class   Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARBs)  
Losartan action   Antagonist at Angiotensin type I receptor. (more complete inhibition of Ang II effects than ACE inhibitors)  
Losartan uses   Tx. of HTN, CHF  
Why ARB over ACE inhibitor   No cough because bradykinin degraded  
Nifedipine class   Calcium channel blocker  
Nifedipine action   Block the inward flow of Ca 2+ into vascular smooth muscle cells, reducing their contractility  
Nifedipine uses   Tx. of HTN, vasospastic angina, arrhythmias  
Nitroglycerine uses   Tx. and prophylaxis of angina, tx of CHF, and MI (decreases preload and afterload)  
Name 4 Diuretics   Furosemide (loop), acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor), hydrochlorothiazide (thiazide), spironolactone (potassium-sparing)  
Diuretic action   Increase renal excretion of Na+ and thus the equivalent amount of water. (reduces plasma volume and venous return)  
Diuretic uses   Tx. of HTN, edema, CHF, renal failure  
Isoproterenol Class   Beta adrenergic agonist  
Isoproterenol action   B1 and B2 agonist; Increases cAMP and activation of Ca2+ channels. Increases HR, conduction rate, contractility  
Isoproterenol uses   (b1) Cardiogenic shock, heart failure; (b2) asthma, emphysema  
Dobutamine class   Beta adrenergic agonist  
Dobutamine action   B1 agonist Increases cAMP and activation of Ca2+ channels. Increases HR, conduction rate, contractility  
Dobutamine uses   (b1) Cardiogenic shock, heart failure  
Terbutaline class   Beta adrenergic agonist  
Terbutaline action   B2 agonist; bronchodilator and increase cAMP leading to Increases HR, conduction rate, contractility  
Terbutaline uses   Bronchodilator for asthma and emphysema  
Milrinone class   Phosphodiesterase inhibitor  
Milrinone action   Inhibit phosphodiesterase which degrades cAMP  
Milrinone uses   Tx. of heart failure  
Dopamine class   Dopamine agonist  
Dopamine action   Activate Dopamine receptors in renal, mesenteric, cerebral vasculature causing vasodilation. Dopamine is a precursor for NE which causes vasoconstriction  
Dopamine uses   Dose dependent. Low doses <10 ug/kg/min vasodilate, large doses vasoconstrict  
Digoxin class   Cardiac glycosides  
Digoxin action   Directly inhibit Na+/K+ ATPase, increasing intracellular Na+ reducing the transmembrane Na+ gradient, inhibiting Na+/Ca2+ exchange and thus reducing Ca+2 flux out of myocytes  
Digoxin uses   Heart failure  
Propanolol class   Beta-blocker  
Propanolol action   Antagonist at B1, B2 receptors  
Propanolol uses   HTN  
Name Calcium channel blockers   Nifedipine (most potent vasodilator), Verapamil, diltiazem  
Nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem action   Block inward flow of Ca2+ during phase 2 (plateau) in cardiac AP, and decreased Ca2+ into vascular smooth muscle leading to decreased cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and increase renal blood flow  
Nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem uses   HTN  
Levosimendan class   Calcium sensitizers  
Levosimendan action   Increases sensitivity of cardiac troponin to Ca2+ and has vasodilator action  
Levosimendan uses   Heart failure  
Dexamethasone Class   Corticosteroid  
Dexamethasone Action   suppress inflammation and the normal immune response, induce apoptosis of lymphocytes  
Dexamethasone Uses   Respiratory distress, allergies, reduction of inflammation  
Ampicillin Class   Aminopenicillin  
Ampicillin Action   Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis  
Gentamicin Class   Aminoglycoside  
Gentamicin Action   Irreversibly binds 30s subunit of ribosome and inhibits bacterial protein synthesis  


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