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Immunity 免疫   is the ability of the body to defend itself against infectious agents.  
Nonspecific immunity   known as innate 先天 immunity, is present at birth and provides immediate but general protection against any foreign agent that enter the body  
Specific immunity   known as acquired immunity, is effective against particular identified foreign agents and develops in response to contract with that agent.  
Physical & Chemical Barrier   A physical barrier, skin also , and oil contain chemicals that destroy foreign invaders 入侵者.  
Phagocytosis   White blood cells (leukocytes) can destroy infectious agents through phagocytosis, which means cell eating, leukocytes engulf 吞噬 and digest bacteria or other material.  
Natural Killer Cells   Natural killer cells are a type of leukocyte that recognizes body cells with abnormal membranes. Cell membranes can become altered from cells being infected with foreign invaders like viruses.  
What can Natural killer cells do?   Natural killer cells can destroy abnormal cells on contact by secreting a protein that destroys the cell membrane.  
Fever   Fever can be a sign that the body is defending itself.  
Leukocytosis   is the excessive production of white cells  
Pyogenic bacteria   Bacteria that cause pus formation.  
Fibroblasts 成纤维细胞   A type of connective tissue cell,produce collagen fibers.  
A scar tissue   A healing site consists a meshwork of collagen fibers contract, drawing the cut surfaces together.  
Keloid healing   is a scar after surgery or a severe burn is often raised and hard.  
Keloid healing-scar   Surgery to remove this type of scar is usually ineffective, as the subsequent incision will have a tendency to heal in the same way.  
Adhesions   The collagen fibers anchor 锚 together adjacent structures, which interfere with organ functions.  
Lymphatic system   The lymphatic system includes a network of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organs.  
What could happen if without lymphatic system?   Without the lymphatic system the cardiovascular system would cease to function and body defenses would be seriously impaired.  
Lymph 淋巴   Lymph must be returned to the blood stream or it will accumulate in the tissues, which producing swelling or edema, and there will be insufficient blood volume for cardiovascular functioning.  
Lymphedema 淋巴水肿   Lymphedema occurs when tissues swell because lymphatic vessels are blocked.  
Lymph nodes   Lymph is transported in the lymphatic vessels toward the heart, it is filtered by lymph nodes.  
Lymphocytes 淋巴细胞   A type of white blood cell that responds to bacteria, viruses, and foreign material in lymph. Lymphocytes play a critical role in specific immunity.  
The causes of Inflammation   The cause of inflammation may be a trauma or injury, such as a sprained ankle or a severe blow 严厉打击.  
The signs and symptoms of inflammation   Are redness, swelling, heat, and pain.  
Inflammation   Inflammation is a protective tissue response to injury or invasion.  
Hyperemia 充血   Causes the heat and redness associated with inflammation.  
Neutrophils (Leukocytes)   are specialized cells that defend the body against invading 入侵 microorganisms and speed healing by engulfing cell debris in injured tissues.  
Suppurative inflammation   An inflammation associated with pus formation  
Name the 2 types of lymphocytes that provide immunity   T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes  
B lymphocytes   Responsible of rhumoral immunity.  
T lymphocytes   Responsible for cell-mediated 细胞介导immunity are processed by the thymus gland which called T lymphocytes.  
IgG   Neutralizes toxins and viruses  
IgM   Protects newborns  
IgA   offers localized protection at mucosal 黏膜 surfaces.  
IgE   is involved in allergy  
IgD   Activates B lymphocytes  
The cytotoxic T lymphocytes   Are often called killer lymphocytes because they are capable of killing invading organisms.  
Histamine 组胺   Histamine causes the dilation of the blood vessels, making them leak plasma 等离子 into the tissues.  
What cause hay fever?   Histamine. The tissue fluid causes edema, or swelling, which when localized in the nasal passages results in congestion and irritation.  
Antihistamines   It inhibit the effects of histamine and are quite effective in the treatment of hives but less so for hay fever.  
Autograft   Tissue grafts are transplanted from one site to another in the same patient  
Isograft   tissue donated by an identical twin.  
Xenograft   tissue grafts harvested from a different animal species; the use of pig heart valves in humans is an example  
Allograft   Tissue is transplanted from one person to another, but the transplant donor and recipient are not identical twins. However, the blood typed has to be matched.  
Tolerance   The immune response normally recognizes the difference between the individual's own tissues and those of invaders.  
What happen if tolerance fails?   An autoimmune 自身免疫性 disease may be the result  
Autoimmunity   It occurs when individuals develop antibodies called autoantibodies to their own tissues or selfantigens.  
Lupus   Lupus is chronic inflammatory disease that can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, joints, lungs, blood, kidneys, and brain.  
How many types of Lupus?   The are 4 types of lupus: systemic, discoid, drug induced, and neonatal(new born).  
Systemic lupus erythematosis(SLE)   70% of people with lupus have SLE, in SLE,autoantibodies against DNA and RNA can damage any body cell, so many body systems can be involved  
Signs of SLE   Common signs and symptoms of SLE include arthritis, low-grade fever, butterfly rash over the cheeks and bridge of the nose or more widespread rash, fatigue, photosensitivity, hair loss, and Raynoud's phenomenon (fingers turning white and blue in the cold)  
Discoid or cutaneous lupus   is limited to skin. It is identified by a rash that may appear on the face, neck, and scalp.  
Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE)   DILE can be brought on by more than70 different prescription drugs; however, only about 4% of people who take these drugs will develop DILE.  
Signs of DILE   Signs and symptoms are similar to those of SLE. Signs and symptoms disappear within days to months. after discontinuing the drug.  
Neontal lupus   is a rare condition acquired from passage of maternal autoantibodies which can afect the skinn, heart, and blood of the fetus and newborn.  
Cause of lupus   The cause of lupus is unknown, but there are environmental and genetic factors involved.  
Identifying lupus   Because lupus signs and symptoms mimic 模仿 those of other illnesses, are sometimes vague (not clearly )and may come and go, lupus can be difficult to diagnose.  
Antimalrials   Drugs are used to treat lulpus arthritis, skin rashes, and mouth ulcers.  
Can lupus be cure?   Lupus tends to be chronic and relapsing, often with symptom-free periods that can last for years.  
Why name Scleroderma?   Derived from the Greek words sclerosis, meaning "hardness" and derma, meaning "skin", scleroderma literally means "hard skin."  
Scleroderma or systemic clerosis   is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue  
There are 2 types of scleroderma   Localized and systemic scleroderma.  
Localized scleroderma   Localized types of scleroderma are those limited to the skin and related tissues and, in some cases, the muscle below. Internal organs are not affected.  
There are 2 kinds of scleroderma   Morphea 硬斑病(localized form)and linear scleroderma.  
Systemic scleroderma   Involves the skin, tissues under the skin, blood vessels, and the major organs.  
Can Scleroderma be cure?   Scleroderma has no known cure, and there is not treatment to stop the overproduction of collagen.  
2 types of artificial immunity can be administered.   Active and passive immunity  
Active immunity   The person receives a vaccine or a toxoid as the antigen, and he or she forms antibodies to cvounteract it.  
Vaccine   Is a suspension of whole organisms or pieces of organisms that is used to induce immunity.  
Toxoid 类毒素   It is similar to vaccine, it consists of chemically altered toxin, the poisonous material produced by a pathogenic organism. Having been treated chemically, the toxin will not cause disease.  
Examples of toxoid vaccines   Include tetanus and diphtheria 白喉  
What could happen if a person is exposed a serious disease such as hepatitis, tetanus, or rabies and has no immunity against it?   In this case, the person is given passive immunity, doses of preformed antibodies from immune serum of an animal, usually a horse. This type of immunity is short lived but acts immediately.  
Cortisol or hydrocortisone   Cortisol decreases production of antibodies and substances released by leukocytes that stimulate other cells of the immune system.  
Preformed antibodies   Passive immunity is achieved artificially by injection of preformed antibodies.  
Memory lymphocytes   Long-live lymphocytes, which remain dormant until reactivated after an immune response.  
Humoral immunity   Defense against antigens via antibodies.  
Antigen   Is a foreign substance that triggers an immune response.  
Plasma   Plasma cells secrete antibodies during the immune response.  
What type of hypersensitivity response to poison ivy?   IV hypersensitivity  
Which antibody is produced in excess during an allergic response?   IgE  
Which cells are involved in both cellular and humoral reactions during an immune response?   Helper cells  
Interferon   Is a group of substances that stimulate the immune system.  
Antigen   A substance that triggers an immune response  
Vaccine   Consists of a low dose of dead or deactivated bacteria or viruses.  
Nonspecific immunity   is effective against any foreign agent  
What release histamine   Damaged tissue  
What protect newborn?   IgM  
Which type of leukocyte that recognizes body cell with abnormal membranes?   Natural killer  
What is the causative 致病 agent of AIDS?   HIV virus  
What kind of immunity that a person is given preformed antibodies?   Passive immunity.  
T lymphocytes   provide cell-mediated immunity and are processed by the thymus gland.  
B lymphocytes   Lymphocytes that produce antiboies in cell-mediated immunity.  
ischemia 缺血   deficient supply of blood to a body part (as the heart or brain) that is due to obstruction of the inflow 流入 of arterial blood (as by the narrowing of arteries by spasm or disease) 缺血  
Atherosclerosis   动脉粥样硬化  
linear scleroderma   a line of thickened skin which can affect the bones and muscles underneath it.  
cytosis   A condition in which there is more than the usual number of cells.  
anaphylaxis (systemic allergy) 过敏性反应   exaggerated allergic reaction to a foreign protein resulting from previous exposure to it.  
Cell-mediated   细胞介导  
Mediated   to occupy an intermediate place or position.  
Gamma globulin   丙种球蛋白 # A class of globulins in the blood plasma of humans and other mammals that function as part of the body's immune system and include most antibodies.  
Gamma globulin   For some one who expose to a serious disease and has no immunity against it.  
interferon   Blocks virus multiplication  
What is characteristic of a systemic hypersensitive response that produces anaphylaxis?   Massive release of histamine  


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