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Chapter 4

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Simple squamous epithelium   easily diffused, single layer, secretes serosa, kidney, lungs, serosa (linings)  
simple cuboidal epithelium   single layer sube-like cells, secretion and absorption, kidney tubules, ovary surface  
simple columnar epithelium   single layer tall cells with round to oval nuclei, may contain goblet cells, digestive tract  
pseudostratified columnar epithelium   single layer differing heights may contain goblet cells, trachea upper resp.  
epithelium   avascular, but inervated  
stratified squamous epithelium   thick membrane several layers - basal cells cuboidal or columnal, surface cells squamous - protects underlying tissues - eso, mouth  
transitional epithelium   basal cells cuboidal or column, surface cells dome shaped or squamous - stretches readily to permit distension  
areolar connective tissue   gel like matrix; composes basement membrane; wraps and cushions organs; phagocytes engulf bact; holds and conveys tissue fluids  
adipose tissue   provides reserve fluid; insulates  
reticular connective tissue   network of fibers form stroma (soft skeleton) that supports other cells  
dense connective tissue   attaches bone to bone and muscle to bone  
hyaline cartilage   firm matrix invaded with fibers; glassy and smooth; provides cushioning; found in larynx and costal cartilage  
bone (osseous) tissue   hard matrix; provides lever upon which muscle may act  
skeletal muscle   voluntary; locomotion; facial expression; cylindrical cells; multinucleate; striated  
cardiac muscle   invol., branching, uninucleate, intercalcated  
smooth muscle   invol.; spindle shaped w/central nuclei; cells arr. closely to form sheets; NO striations; bladder, stomach, active in birth  
nervous cells   includes neuralglia; branching cells; conducts impulses  
plasma membrane   bilayer of phospholipids interspersed w/protein molecules; transportation  
tight junction   membrane junction like a pot weld keeps body fluids from mixing  
desmosomes   membrane junction - filament, adhesion  
gap junction   connexon; allows cytoplasm of one cell into another  
diffusion   membrane transport - passive process; doesn't use energy; stops when EQ is reached  
osmosis   diffusion of water through cell or plasma membrane; must have selectively permeable membrane and concentration gradient  
isotonic   equal tension  
facilitated diffusion   how all things except water diffuse - need concentration gradient and carrier molecule  
active transport   need carrier molecule and will utilize energy (ATP)  
endocytosis   engulf/surround certain cells (WBC surround viruses, digests and kills them)  
phagocytosis   'cell-eating- (WBC engulfs a solid particle)  
pinocytosis   'cell-drinking'; fluid-phase endocytosis - like digesting a drop of oil  
exocytosis   cell eliminates indigestible materials  
cytoplasm   includes cytosol (living liquid), organelles and inclusions (storage)  
cytosol   living liquid of cell  
inclusion   storage  
mitochondria   powerhouse of the cell; anaerobic; resp. happens here  
ribosome   protein synthesis  
endoplasmic reticulum   double membrane structure containing rough Endo. Retic and smooth endo retic.  
rough endoplasmic reticulum   cranks out ribosomes  
smooth reticulum   holds lipids  
Golgi apparatus   packaging plant - maintains inactive enzymes until they arrive at activation site  
lysosomes   bag of INTRAcellular enzymes - never released to outside of cell - recycle cell parts (like WBC digest/kill bacterium)  
Tay-Sachs   improper breakdown of lipids  
Peroxisomes   organelle that breaks down free radicals (reactive forms of O2)Converts free rads to peroxide  
cytoskeleton   cell skeleton w/microfilaments, intermed. fila. and microtubules which contract and relax to stir and mix cytoplasm  
cilia   hairlike projections  
flagella   projections formed by centrioles  
nucleus   control center  
RBC   anucleate  
chromatin   DNA NOT undergoing reproduction - chromosomes  
Interphase   NOT a phase of mitosis; when cell is not doing mitosis, it is in interphase  
prophase   chromosomes form;nuclear membrane disappears; nucleolus appears, centrioles migrate; spindle forms  
metaphase   chromosomes meet in middle/alignment occurs  
anaphase   chromosomes separate - top part separates from bottom part (daughter cell)  
telophase   opposite of prophase - reverts back to chromatin form; nuclear membrane begins to disappear; spindle disappears; division of cytoplasm  
G1   1st growth stage of interphase - chromatin single stranded  
S   subphase of Interphase - synthesize DNA  
G2   2nd growth stage of interphase - centrioles duplicate  
Phases of Interphase   G1 (first growth stage, S (substage), G2 (2nd growth stage)  
aptosis   demobilization/killing off of cells that are no longer needed  
hyperplasia   accelerated cell growth  
atrophy   don't use it you lose it  
COOH   components of amino acid nitrogen, carbon  
S phase   Interphase  
epithelial tissue   covers organ or lines a hollow organ  
epithelial tissue   polarity; specialized contacts; supported by connective tissue; avascular but inervated; regeneration continual  
simple squamous epithelial   floor tile kidneys lungs  
simple cuboidal   single later cubits kidney sweat, oil, ducts  
simple columnar   lines digestive tract, stomach rectum, goblet cells  
pseudostratified columnar   resp. tract , has cilia to trap dust and goblet cells for mucous  
stratified squamous   thick skin  
transitional epithelium   changes from thick to thin - bladder before and after voiding  
endocrine epithelium Glands   diffuses directly into bloodstream - no tubes, no ducts  
exocrine epithelium Glands   tubes,ducts - sweat, goblet cells,sebaceous  
merocrine   secretion glands on forehead, upper lip (salt and water)  
holocrine   secretion gland in armpit and groin, salt and water, sebaceous and pieces of cells; milky like secretion w/o odor  
connective tissue   holds body parts together; common origin; varying degree of vascularity; extracellular matrix  
collagen fibers   break before stretching; shiny; strong; white; bone to bone; muscle to bone  
elastic fibers   stretch before breaking; yellowing; ear, tip of nose  
reticular fibers (reticular connective)   network of fibers, spleen  
'blast'   produces something  
chondroblast   produces cartilage chondrin  
WBC   digest bacterium  
mast cells   allergens irritate these sensitive cells that produce histamines  
regular tissue   organized, made up of collagen, tendons and ligaments  
irregular tissue   disorganized; joints and capsules; fibrous, any direction  
cartilage   chondrin/protein (gristle)  
hyaline   looks like milkglass; glistening and tough; ribcage; flexible  
dendrite   carries nerve impulse toward cell body  
axon   caries nerve impulse away from the cell body  
elastic cartilage   end of nose ears epiglottis  
Fibrocartilage   collagen, fibers, backbone, vertebrae  
osseous tissue   bone, osteocytes trapped in bones  
blood   liquid portion-plasma; lymphocytes, neutrophils - eat bad stuff  
neuron   pain  
muscle   contraction  
cutaneous membranes   skin  
mucous membrane   opens to outside; like w/mucous  
serous membrane   not open to outside; lined w/serosa  
4 characteristc of Imslammation   swelling, pain, redness, heat  
regeneration of tissue repair   inflammation, restore blood supply, fibrosis  
3 layers of embryonic disc   ectoderm )skin, nerv. sys.), mesoderm (conn. tiss., bones, organs), endoderm (dig. tract)  
integumentary system includes   nails, hair, sweat and sebaceous glands  
integ has how many layers   TWO not three (for this class) epi and dermis  
epidermis   stratified squamous epith. consisting of 4-5 layers  
layers of epidermis   keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans' cells, Merkle cells  
Keratinocyte   (blank)  
Langerhans' cells   (blank)  
Layers of epidermis   Stratum Corneum, Stratum Granuloseum, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Basale (5th Stratum Lucidum-hands/feet)  
Dermis   5 times thicker than epidermis, has glands,hair and hair follicles  
2 layers of dermis   papillary layer (20%) and reticular layer (80%)  
epidermal ridges   fingerprints  
botox   causes muscles to relax  
striae   stretch marks; silvery lines; scars  
blister   tears dermis from epidermis; tissue fluid accumulates  
what det. skin color   melanin (freckles are localized pigment)  
jaundice   liver not functioning - hepatitis - liver recycles hemoglobin  
erythema   blush; blood vessels dilate  
pallor-blanching   blood vessels constrict  
bronzing   metallic appearance - Addison's; hypofunction of adrenal cortex  
bruise   blood escapes from circulation and clots beneath skin; hematoma  
appendage of skin   gland  
ceruminous gland   ear wax gland (catch bugs)  
sebaceous glands   produce sebum/oil for hair and skin - always attached to hair follicle  
acne   over-secretion of sebum during puberty  
cradle cap   seborrhea (fast flowing sebum)  
Hair follicle   hair w/ tube growing out of it  
hair on every surface except   palms, soles of feet and external genitalia  
soft keratin is found   skin  
hard keratin is found   hair and nails  
hair has 3 parts   medulla, cortex, cuticle  
medulla   inside layer of hair  
cortex   thick layer outside medulla  
cuticle   outermost layer of hair, thin  
red hair, must have spec pigment   trichodiferin - iron containing  
Arrector pili muscle   found in dermis, attached to hair follicle; involuntary  
vellus   hair on head (women, children) fine  
terminal   men's eyebrows coarser hair  
hirsutism   hairiness; adrenal cortex tumor  
alopecia   baldness (hormones and genes)  
Are nails and hair digestible?   No. layers and layers of indigestible keratin.  
Parts of nail   Matrix, cuticle, laluna  
matrix   nail bed  
cuticle   eponychium  
laluna   moon  
merkle cells   epidermis light touch receptors  
Messner corpuscles   dermis intermediate touch  
Pacinian corpuscles   ??  
basal cell carcinoma   easily treated; surg. removed  
squamous cell carcinoma   raised edge, indention middle - not easily metastasized, easily treated  
melanoma   easily metastasized  
Cancer ABC's   Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter  
Rule of 9's   won't survive  
1st degree burn   redness  
2nd degree burn   redness, blistering  
3rd degree burn   deep tissue burn  
vernix caseosa   cheese like material protects skin from amniotic fluid in utero  
impetigo   crusty lesion face  
smaller molecules make diffusion happen? slower/faster? Heat makes diffusion happen slower/faster?   faster (the smaller people are able to feel the hot crowded cities to a place with more elbow room.)  
carrier   transmembrane showing specifity of certain polar substance (or class of sub.) too large to pass thru membrane channel on its own (like sugars and amino acids)  
channels   transmembrane proteins serving as transports for substances - sus. ions or water  
diffusion   passive transport  
2 types of diffusion (not osmosis)   simple and facilitated  
as solute concentration increases, water concentration....   decreases  
The higher the amount of non diffusible (or non-penetrating) solutes in a cell, the ___ the osmotic pressure and the ___the hydrostatic pressure that must be developed to resist further net water entry.   higher the osmotic ; greater the hydrostatic  
hydrostatic pressure   the back pressure exerted by water against the membrane  
osmotic pressure   cell's tendency to resist further (net) water entry  
hypertonic   solutions with a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than see, int he cell (strong saline, IE)  
hypotonic   solutions that are more dilate (lower concentration of nonpen.solutes) than cells - cells will plump up as water rushes in (IE distilled water, no sale, water will continue to enter until they lyse)  
use hpertonic solutions for with   edema  
use hypotonic solutions with pts with   dehydration  
filtration   process that forces water and solutes through a membrane or capillary wall by hydrostatic pressure; passive; blood; kidneys  
Name two active transport processes   Active transport and vesicular transport  
primary active transport   hydrolysis of ATP results in phosphorylation of transport protein; protein changes form - which cause it to 'pump' bound solute across membrane  
secondary active transport   single ATP-powered pump indiredtly drives secondary active transport of several other solutes. Across gradfient pumping acts like reserve pump or windmill. Pump stores energy.Specific transport - no 'salt' pump - no transport  
vesicular transport   mechanism used for exocytosis; fueled by ATP  
clathrin-coated vescicles   main route for endo and transcytosis - become enclosed  
caveolkin coated vesicles   bind to membrane receptors  
cell adhesion receptors CAMS   embryonic development and wound repair; glycoproteins (cadherins and integrins); Velcro, arms, SOS, sensors, transmitters  
membrane receptors   contact signaling and chemical signaling  
receptor-mediated endocytosis   main mechanism for specific endocytosis and transcytosis; exquisitely selective; insulin,virus, flu, cholera  
cytoplasm   cellular material between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; includes cytosol, cytoplasmic organelles and inclusions  
Name 3 cytoplasmic organelles   mitochondris, ribosomes, perixomes, lysosomes, cytoskeleton, centrioles  
Mitochondria   threadlike or sausage-shaped membranous organelles - powerhouse  
cristae   crests, inner folds of mitochondria that fold inward and protrude into matrix  
ribosomes   site of protein synthesis  
rough endoplasmic reticulum   studded with ribosomes; cell's membrane factory  
smooth endoplasmic reticulum   plays no role in protein synthesis; consists of tubules; detox, synthesis of steroids, breakdown of glycogen, very little smooth ER  
Gogli Apparatus   traffic director for cellular proteins; packages proteins made at rough ER  
lysosomes   spherical membranous organelles containing digestive enzymes - lysol  
Tay-Sachs   genetic lysosomal defect - lysosomes lack enzyme needed to break down gylcolipids causing nerve cell lysosomes to swell w/undigested lipids, interfering w nervous sys functions  
perixsomes   membranous sacs containing powerful enzymes inc. oxidises and catalases which neutralize free radicals; found in liver and kidneys - used to detox  
free radicals   highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons that can scramble te structiure f biological mulecukes  
cytoskeleton   series of rods (microtubulkes, microfilaments and intermediate filaments) running thru sytosol  
Microtubules   determine shape of cell - part of cytoskeleton - growing out from centrosome  
microfilaments   thinnest element of cytoskeleton made of the protein actin  
intermediate filaments   tough insoluable protein fibers woven ropes - most stable and permanebtof cytoskeleton elements - highly tensile-do not bind ot ATP - they attach to desmosomes - act as guy wires  
centrosome   microtubule attaches at centrosome  
cetrioles   pinwheel array if nine triplet microtubukles. Also forn the base if clia and flagella  
cilia   propel othe substances across a cells surface  
flagella   propells itself  
basal bodies   centrioles forming the base of a structure - centrosome=basal body  
flagellum - nine microtubules doublets; centriole has...   nine microtubule triplets  
lysosome   site of intracellular digestion  
microfilaments   muscle contraction  
intermediate filaments   stable cytoskeleton; resist mechanical forces acting on the cell  
inclusion   storage for nutrients, wastes and cell products  
nuclear envelope   separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm; regulates passage of substances to and from nucleus  
nucleoli   site of ribosomal subunit manufacture  
chromatin   DNA constitutes the gene; granular, threadlike material and histone proteins  
what kinds of cells are multinucleate   skeletal, bone destruction and some liver cells  
What is made up of 60% globular histone proteins, 30% DNA and 10% RNA chains?   chromatin (which is made up of nucleosomes  
chromatin is called what when is is 'cleaving'   chromosomes - chromatin condenses when cleaving - when cell is ready to divide  
interphase   cell formation to cell division  
G1   centrioles replicate in interphase  
S phase   DNA is replicated in interphase  
G2   enzymes and proteins synthesized and centrioles replication begun in G1 completed  
adenine bonds to   thymine  
guanine bonds to   cytosine  
mitosis   division of nucleus  
cytokinesis   division of cytoplasm  
meiosis   division of sex cells - produces half the number of genes found in other body cells  
cytokinesis   begins in late anaphase  
what causes cells divide   when there is not enough nutrition in the cell due to surface-area-to-volume-ratio, when it receives chemical signals or when it touches another cell (contact inhibition) except cancer cells which lacks such controls  
What is the master blueprint for protein synthesis   DNA  
proteins are made up of   polypeptide chains - which are made up of amino acids  
gene   segment of DNA molecule that carries instructions for creating one polypeptide chain  
the four nucleotide bases are   A,G,C,T  
RNA   decoding and messenger; has U instead of T (like DNA) is single stranded  
codons   64-three-base DNA/mRNa sequences with 3 stops for signals to terminate protein synthesis  
How many types of tRNA are there   45  
lysosomes kill all but what types of proteins   intercellular proteins used for cell division - when they die they are lysed by ubiquitins  
upiquitins   intercellular ATP dependent reactive protein lysers  
cell differentiation   development of specific and distinctive features in cells (liver cells, brain cells, heart cells, etc.)  
apoptosis   controlled cellular suicide - takes care of unnecessary cells - cell releases lysophophatidylcholine which attracts macrophages  
hyperplasia   accelerated growth  
telomere   string of nucleotides which cap the end of chromosomes  
anaplasia   abnormality in cell structure  
hypertrophy   growth of organ or tissue due to an increase in the size of its cells  
liposomes   hollow microscopic sacs forms of phospholipids that can be files w/a variety of drugs  
dysplasia   change in cell size, shape or arrangement due to chronic irritation or inflammation (infections)  
Principle of complementarity   biochemical activity of cells reflects the operation of organelles  
Name the three parts of a generalized cell   nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane  
plasma membrane   encloses cell contents, mediates exchanges w/extracellular environment and plays role in cellular communication  
fluid mosaic model   depicts plasma membrane as fluid bilayer of lipids withing which proteins are inserted  
what is the structural part of the plasma membrane   lipids  
what is responsible for most specialized membrane functions   proteins  
gap junctions   allow cells to communicate  
desmosomes   couple cells into functional community  
plasma membrane   selectively permeable barrier; substances move across by passive processes dependent on kinetic energy of molecules or on pressure gradients and by active processes which depend on use of cellular ATP  
diffusion   movement of cells DOWN concentration gradient - fat can dissolve into the lipid  
facilitated diffusion   passive movement of certain solutes across the membrane by either biding with the membrane carrier protein or by moving through the membrane channel - driven by kinetic energy  
solutions that cause a net loss of water from cells are   hypertonic  
solutions causing net water gain from cells are   hypotonic  
Cell membrane is more permeable to ___ than ___   potassium than sodium  
Do cells exhibit a charge across their membrane at rest   Yes  
what is responsible for bringing the cell charge to neutral   sodium potassium pump  
Where is ATP formed   Mitochondria  
ribosomes are composed of   ribosomal RNA and proteins  
rough endoplasmic reticulum   ribosome-studded; site of protein modification and phospholipid synthesis  
smooth endoplasmic reticulum   synthesizes lipid and steroid molecules, detoxes  
Golgi apparatus   packages proteins for export, packages enzymes into lysosomes for cellular use  
centrioles   form mitotic spindle and are basis of cilia and flagella  
cell division occurs during what phase   M phases  
exon DNA   provides information for protein structure - each triplet calls for particular amino acid to be built into polypeptide chain  
protein synthesis involves   transcription and translation  
the major types of lipids found in the membrane are   cholesterol and phospholipids  
If DNA has a sequence of AAA, then mRNA will have a sequence of   UUU (there is no T in RNA!)  


   


 
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