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Chest, Abdomen and Back

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Difference between the 7 true ribs and the 5 false ribs?   The true ribs articulate to sternum, false ribs to the costal cartilage above them.  
Two main problems in the chest are because of?   Mesoderm Migration or Differentiation of the cells.  
Sternum is made up of what parts?   Ribs, sternal bars, clavicles.  
Pectus Excavatum   Seen in Coffin Lowry syndrome. Surgical procedure to fix.  
Pectus Carinatum   Pidgin Breast. Seen in Homocystinuria. Surgical or breast plate.  
Shield chest   Turner syndrome.  
Fused/Bifid ribs   Gorlin Syndrome.  
Scoliosis   Deformation.  
Dysplaisas of Chest   Cleidocranial dysostosis, many bone dysplasias and mucopolysaccharidoses.  
Malformations (most common) of Chest   Poland syndrome - absent pectoralis major muscle. Beaded ribs and Short sternum, Cleft sternum, Ectopia Cordis.  
Diastasis Recti   The abs aren't connected so there is a gap which will bulge when the child cries or strains.  
Umbilical Hernia   Herniation of the intestines into the umbilicus.  
Ventral Hernia   Lateral herniation to the midline  
2 vessel cord   Single Umbilical artery, 1% of newborns  
Deformations of the Abdomen   Long Cord, Short Cord, Umbilical cord knot.  
Disruptions of the Abdomen   Absence of abdominal muscle - Prune Belly  
Dysplasias of the Abdomen   Hepatosplenomegaly, Shrunken liver. Size/consistency of liver and spleen.  
Malformations of the Abdomen   Omphalocele, Hernia into the umbilical cord, Gastroschesis. Situs Inversus, Meckel's diverticulum, Urachus, Inguinal Hernias.  
Situs Inversus   Major organs are reversed/mirrored. Totalis - Heart on right side Abdominus - Only organs below diaphragm are reversed.  
Meckel's diverticulum   Remnant of the vitelline duct or yolk stalk  
Urachus   Urachal sinus - Dilation into the bladder or at the umbilicus Urachal cyst - remnant of epithelial liniing of urachus Urachal Fistula - no closure.  
Kyphosis   Convex curvature. Spine is bowed out making a hump.  
Lordosis   Concave curvature. Achondroplasia.  
Scoliosis   Lateral curvature  
Minor variants of the Back   Trunk length, Lumbar Lordosis, Bifid Spinous (C2-C3, Sacral dimples, Pigmentation, Hair  
Deformations of the Back   Scoliosis, Gibbus, Platyspondyly, Winged scapulas, Unusual protrusion  
Malformations of the Back   Scoliosis, Scapular abnormalities, Hypoplastic scapulas, Pilonidal dimple tethered cord, Arnold Chiari, Lipomas, sacrococcygeal teratoma, Spinal dysraphism - Spina bifida occulta, Meningocele, Myelomenigocele, spinal rachischisis.  
Arnold-Chiari malformation   can be caused by tethered cord, Herniation of the cerebellum through the foramen magnum  
Spina bifida occulta   mildest form, marked by lipoma, hemangioma, hairy patch.  
Meningocele   Spinal membranes protrude through spinal canal, lower lumbar or sacral.  
Myelomenigocle   Most serious form of spina bifida. Problems with movement and sensation below the level of defect.  
Spinal rachischisis   Failure of fusion of a large part of neural tube, anencephaly iniencephaly.  


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