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Fungi, Protozoa and Algae

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Answer
Name the 2 groups of fungi.   Yeasts and moulds.  
Explain what is meant by the term saprophyte.   Microorganism which obtains its nutrients from dead or decaying organic material.  
Match the following fungal structures to the correct descriptions: hyphae major component of fungal cell walls mycelium long threadlike filaments of cells chitin   hyphae long threadlike filaments of cells mycelium mass of hyphae chitin major component of fungal cell walls  
Explain the vegetative hyphae.   Vegetative hyphae form mycelia. They anchor the fungus to its substrate and enable the fungus to obtain nutrients from the environment.  
Explain the reproductive hyphae.   Reproductive hyphae are also called ariel hyphae. They rise above the substrate and form reproductive spores.  
Using the terms vegetative hyphae and extracellular enzymes explain how fungi obtain nutrients.   Extracellular enzymes secreted from the vegetative hyphae degrade substrates in the surrounding area. These products are then absorbed by the vegetative hyphae and can be shared with other cells through cytoplasmic streaming.  
Describe the aspetate.   Septate hyphal tubes are divided by cross walls called the septum.  
Describe the septate hyphae.   Aseptate hyphae do not possess these cross walls.  
What do the pores found in the cross walls of the septa allow?   They allow the movement of cytoplasm, organelles and nutrients between adjacent cells (cytoplasmic streaming).  
Complete the Class I: NAME OF GROUP SEXUAL SPORE TYPE Oospores ASEXUAL SPORE   Class I NAME OF GROUP Oomycetes SEXUAL SPORE TYPE Oospores ASEXUAL SPORE Zoospores  
Complete the Class II: NAME OF GROUP Zygomycetes SEXUAL SPORE TYPE ASEXUAL SPORE Sporangiospores   Class II NAME OF GROUP Zygomycetes SEXUAL SPORE TYPE Oospores ASEXUAL SPORE Sporangiospores  
Complete the Class III: NAME OF GROUP Ascomycetes SEXUAL SPORE TYPE Ascospores ASEXUAL SPORE   Class III NAME OF GROUP Ascomycetes SEXUAL SPORE TYPE Ascospores ASEXUAL SPORE Conidiospores  
Complete the Class IV: NAME OF GROUP Basidiomycetes SEXUAL SPORE TYPE Basidiospores ASEXUAL SPORE Conidiospores   Class IV NAME OF GROUP Basidiomycetes SEXUAL SPORE TYPE Basidiospores ASEXUAL SPORE Conidiospores  
Complete the Class V: NAME OF GROUP Deuteromycetes SEXUAL SPORE TYPE No known sexual spores ASEXUAL SPORE Conidiospores   Class V NAME OF GROUP Deuteromycetes SEXUAL SPORE TYPE No known sexual spores ASEXUAL SPORE Conidiospores  
Describe the differences in structure between conidiospores and sporangiospores (a diagram may be useful).   Conidiospores are spores produced at hyphal tips but not within a sac whereas sporangiospores are produced within a spore sac found at the hyphal tip.  
Name the 4 groups of protozoa and state their method of locomotion.   Ciliates – cilia Flagellates – flagella Sporozoans – non motile Rhizopuds - pseudopodia  
For each of the above methods of locomotion, state how they work.   Ciliates – coordinated, oar like stroke Flagellates – spinning, whipping, tentacle movement Pseudopodia – crawling motion (membrane extends forward – rest of cell flows into its new position)  
From the list below, match the following organelles with their functions: Micronucleus, cell membrane, flagella, pseudopodia, ectoplasm, pellicle, food vacuole, endoplasm, cytosome, contractile vacuole, cilia, secretory vacuole, macronucleus.   Follow.....  
From the list above: • smaller – involved in genetic recombination during reproduction _______________________________   Micronucleus  
From the list above: • larger – responds to external stimuli – controls day to day functioning of the cell___________________________   Macronucleus  
From the list above: • boundary surrounding the cytoplasm________________________   Cell membrane  
From the list above: • cell membrane and all the structures directly beneath it_____   Pellicle  
From the list above: • cytoplasm directly beneath cell membrane – semi-solid for shape – anchors flagella or cilia_____________________________   Ectoplasm  
From the list above: • inner layer of cytoplasm containing organelles_______________   Endoplasm  
From the list above: • cell mouth – found in ciliates for ingesting fluids or solid particles_________________________   Cytosome  
From the list above: • function is osmoregulation – found in fresh water protozoa – pumps out excess water______________________   Contractile vacuole  
From the list above: • contains enzymes – performs excystation(expels cysts)_____   Secretory vacuole  
From the list above: • phagocytic vacuoles – cell membrane - surrounds food, forms a vacuole, enzymes in vacuole digest food_______________________   Food vacuole  
From the list above: • may have one or more – long threadlike extensions – move by spinning, whipping or tentacle like movements___________________   Flagella  
From the list above: • smaller and shorter than flagella – larger numbers – move in co-ordinated oar-like fashion_____________________________   Cilia  
From the list above: • false feet – extension of the cell membrane – crawling like motion – used for feeding by phagocytosis______________________   Pseudopodia  
   


   






 
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