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Chapters 1 & 2

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.
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Question
Answer
Physical property   observed with the senses  
Physical change   a change in size, shape, or state;no new substance  
Chemical property   indicates how a substance will react with something else; matter will be changed into new substance  
Chemical change   a change in the chemical and physical properties; new substance is formed  
Kelvin=   Celsius + 273  
Celsius=   Kelvin - 273  
exothermic   releases heat  
endothermic   process absorbs heat and cools the surroundings  
chemical reaction   a process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance, as opposed to a change in physical form  
product   The substances that result from this recombination of atoms  
reactant   written on the left side, in a similar manner to a math equation  
density   Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume.  
mass   Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in a substance or an object.  
matter   Matter is all the “stuff” that exists in the universe.  
quantity   the amount or number of a material or immaterial thing not usually estimated by spatial measurement.  
volume   the amount of space that a substance or object occupies, or that is enclosed within a container, especially when great.  
weight   the name of the force exerted on an object due to the acceleration of gravity.  
allotrope   each of two or more different physical forms in which an element can exist. Graphite, charcoal, and diamond are all allotropes of carbon.  
atom   the smallest component of an element, characterized by a sharing of the chemical properties of the element and a nucleus with neutrons, protons and electrons.  
element   a substance whose atoms all have the same number of protons  
molecule   a complete chemical unit  
acid   A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly.  
base   A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only slightly.  
compound   A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent elements.  
mixture   A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties  
ion   An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.  
inorganic compound   any compound that does not both carbon and hydrogen together  
organic compound   any compound that contains both carbon and hydrogen together  
pH   a figure expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a logarithmic scale on which 7 is neutral, lower values are more acid, and higher values more alkaline.  
chemical bond   The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.  
energy   The capacity to do work or transfer heat.  
heat   the sum of the total of kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of the matter  
kinetic energy   energy a moving object has because it is in motion  
potential energy   energy an object has because of its location  
specific heat   the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1 kelvin  
system   an integrated whole, composed of diverse, interacting, specialized structures and subfunctions.  
temperature   A measure of the intensity of heat  
hypothesis   a testable question/problem  
theory   a supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained.  
scientific law   statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspect of the universe.  
accuracy   How closely a measured value agrees with the correct value.  
precision   how close multiple results are to each other  
solid   definite shape/volume - molecules tightly packed - vibrate in place  
liquid   definite volume; variable shape - moderately packed - flow over each other  
gases   indefinite shape/volume - spread far apart - rapid random motion  
reactants   to the left of the arrow  
products   to the right of the equation  
KHDBDCM   kilo, hecto, deka, base, deci, centi, milli  
density =   mass/volume  
heterogeneous mixture   can be separated from one another.  
homogeneous mixture   a solid, liquid or gaseous mixture that has the same proportions of its components throughout a given sample  
activation energy   the amount of energy needed to make an object begin movement  
law of conservation of energy   energy can neither be created nor destroyed  
% of error=   theoretical-experimental / theoretical X 100  


   






 
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