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Transfusion Medicine

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

What does DEA stand for?   Dog Erythrocyte Antigen  
Can a dog receive a blood transfusion without matching blood types the first time?   Yes. The second time, if it is 4 days after the initial transfusion, it will have to be matched.  
What is the universal canine donor blood type?   DEA 1.1 negative and DEA 1.2 negative  
What is the reason that dogs can receive the first transfusion without matching blood types?   There is usually not an antigen-antibody reaction on a first transfusion and dogs do not have naturally occurring alloantibodies.  
What is an alloantibody?   an antibody that reacts with an antigen from a genetically different individual of the same species.  
If a dog has a severe reaction to a blood transfusion it is usually from which blood type administration?   DEA 1.1 positive  
If a dog needs a second blood transfusion after it's initial transfusion 2 days later, can you give it another one with the same donor blood?   Yes. If it is within 4 days of the initial transfusion  
What are the blood types of felines?   A, B, and AB  
Which one is the most prevalent?   A  
Which feline blood type is the most rare?   AB  
Can cats receive their first transfusion without matching blood types?   NO-they will most likely have a reaction if given type B blood because it has very strong naturally occurring alloantibodies  
Do type A cats have strong alloantibodies?   no theirs are weak anti-B alloantibodies  
What is autoagglutination?   red bloods clumping  
A dog with DEA 1.1 negative blood and a dog with DEA 1.1 positive blood can receive blood from what blood type?   DEA 1.1 negative  
What is the age range for a dog to be a blood donor?   1-6 years  
How much in pounds should a blood donor at least weigh?   55 lb  
What should the PCV be of a blood donor dog?   equal to or greater than 40%  
If a dog has just recently been vaccinated, can it give blood?   No. It cannot give blood for at least 4 weeks.  
If a dog is DEA 1.1 positive, who can he receive blood from?   DEA 1.1 positive only  
What is the PCV of a donor cat supposed to be before donating?   equal to or greater than 35%  
What is the site for blood collection on a dog or cat?   jugular  
How long is whole blood usable if it is stored with anticoagulant-preservative?   21 days  
What samples are needed to perform a major cross match?   recipient plasma and donor RBC  
What samples are needed to perform a minor cross match?   donor plasma and recipient RBC  
If there is an incompatibility in blood types when performing a major or minor cross match what will you see?   hemolysis and agglutination  
How are blood products given to a recipient?   IV  
If a puppy or kitten need a blood transfusion and their veins are too small what other method can we use?   IO  
What does IO stand for?   intraosseous  
What bones can be used for IO blood transfusions?   trochanteric fossa of femur, wing of ilium and shaft of humerus  
What is the infusion rate for blood transfusions?   0.25-1 ml/kg/hr for 15-20 minutes  
What is the usual length of time that it takes for a blood transfusion to be administered?   2 hours  
Why do the blood administration sets have filters on them?   to catch any blood clots that might have formed  
If a cat has an acute intravascular hemolytic reaction during a blood transfusion what is the usual cause?   mismatched transfusion--a Type A giving to a type B  
If a dog has an acute intravascular hemolytic reaction during a blood transfusion what is the usual cause?   the recipient most likely had a previous transfusion without matching blood types and it made antibodies against the donor blood type  
What are some of the signs that an animal is having a reaction to the blood transfusion?   pyrexia, vomiting, urticaria, pruritis  
Before a blood transfusion is given, what should the veterinary nurse do to the patient?   Get a baseline on temperature, mm, CRT,PCV, total plasma protein, RR, pulse, urine color, and attitude of patient  
What anticoagulant is used for blood collection?   sodium citrate  
If you miscalculated how much blood the dog needed and you gave it too much blood, what would be the signs that you would see in your patient?   coughing, dyspnea, cyanosis, tachycardia, and vomiting  
What is the only fluid that should be used if needed when giving a blood transfusion?   normal saline  
Post bloodwork on a blood transfusion recipient should be done when?   60-90 minutes after tranfusion  
What bloodwork should be run post transfusion?   PCV/TS  
What is neonatal isoerythrolysis?   This occurs when a female animal of one blood type is mated to a male of another. Neonates that inherit the blood group of the sire develop hemolytic anemia when they ingest colostrum containing antibodies against their and the sire’s erythrocytes.  


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