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Ch. 13 powerpoint

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Question
Answer
-obligatory intracellular parasites -acellular -no plasma membrane -no ribosomes -no ATP- generating mechanism -no sensitive to antibiotics   characteristics of Viruses  
-contain DNA OR RNA -contain a protein coat -some viruses are enclosed by an envelope -some viruses have spikes   characteristics of Viruses  
True or False: Most viruses infect only specific types of cells in one host?   True  
Host range is determined by what?   specific host attachment sites and host cellular factors  
a complete, fully developed, infectious viral particle   Virion  
Viruses are classified by:   -their nucleic acid -differences in the structures of their coats  
-DNA or RNA but never both -single stranded or double stranded -linear or circular What type of acid?   Nucleic acid  
capsomeres: protein subunits, a single type or several types   capsid  
4 different types of viruses?   -Helical viruses -Polyhedral viruses -Enveloped viruses -Complex viruses  
What is the general size of viruses?   -much smaller than bacteria -less than 500 nanometers  
Viruses must be grown in what kind of cells?   Living cells  
bacteriophages form what on a lawn of bacteria?   plaques  
Animal viruses may be grown in what? (3)   -living animals -embryonated eggs -in cell cultures  
Do all viruses have the same shape?   No  
Where are viral spikes located?   outmost surface  
For a virus to multiply, it must do what?   invade a host cell and take over the host's metabolic machinery  
What usually causes host cell's death?   Viral multiplication  
Bacteriophage life cycle is well known and similar to what?   animal viruses  
phage causes lysis and death of host cell   Lytic cycle  
Prophage DNA incorporated in host DNA   Lysogenic cycle  
Multiplication of Animal Viruses: -viruses attach to cell membrane -by binding between viral capsid protein or spikes and host proteins or glycoproteins on the plasma membrane   Attachment  
Multiplication of Animal Viruses: -by receptor-mediated endocytosis or fusion   Penetration  
Multiplication of Animal Viruses: -by viral or host enzymes   Uncoating  
Multiplication of Animal Viruses: -production of nucleid acid and proteins   Biosynthesis  
Multiplication of Animal Viruses: -nucleic acid and capsid proteins assemble, usually a spontaneous process   Maturation  
Multiplication of Animal Viruses: -by budding (enveloped viruses) or rupture (nonenveloped viruses)   Release  
the genetic material of what type of virus becomes integrated into the host cell's DNA?   Oncogenic viruses  
Activated what transform normal cells into cancerous cells?   Oncogenes  
Transformed cells have what? (3)   -increased growth -loss of contract inhibition -chromosomal abnormalies (unusual #'s of chromosomes; fragmented chromosomes)  
tumor-specific transplantation antigens   TSTA  
virus-specific antigen in nucleus   T antigens  
Papillomaviruses cause what type of cancer?   uterine (cervical) cancer  
liver cancer Virus?   Hepatitis B virus (HBV)  
Burkitt's lymphoma Virus?   Epstein-Barr (EB) virus  
Virus remains in asymptomatic host cell for long periods   Latent viral infections  
Disease process occurs over a long period; generally is fatal -measles virus   Persistent viral infections  
Retroviruses -viral RNA is transcribed to DNA, which can integrate into host DNA -human T cell leukemia virus   Oncogenic RNA viruses  


   


 
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