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Intro to anatomy and physiology; chapter 1

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Term
Definition
What is Anatomy?   study of the structure of body parts and their relationship with one another  
Gross   visible to the naked eye  
3 types of Gross Anatomy   Regional, systemic, developmental  
Microscopic   requires a microscope  
2 types of Microscopic Anatomy   Cytology, Histology  
What is Physiology?   study of the functioning of the body structural machinery and how the parts work to sustain life  
Principle of complementarity of structure and function   anatomy and physiology are inseparable; function always reflects structure, what structure can do depends on its specific form  
levels of structural organization   chemical, tissue, organ, organ system, organism  
Necessary life function are accomplished through HINT: there are 8   maintain boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth  
interdependence of body cells   all cells depend on organ systems to meet their survival needs, all body functions spread among different organ systems  
5 survival needs   nutrients, oxygen, water, stable body temp (37), atmospheric pressure (gas exchange)  
Homostasis   the same state, maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous changes in enviroment; maintained by contributions of all organs systems,  
Homoeostasis Control Mechansims (HCM) HINT: there are 3   Receptor (recieves stimulus), Control centre (processes stimulus), Effector (responds to stimulus)  
Two types of HCM   1. Negative feedback mechanism 2. positive feedback mechanism  
Negative feedback mechanism   the response to the stimulus that acts to turn off stimulus e.g.. you are cold so you put on a jacket  
Positive feedback mechanism   the response to the stimulus that amplifies the stimulus eg. sex  
anatomical position   body erect, feet slightly apart with palms facing forward, thumbs pointing away from body  
regional terms   two major divisions of the body; head, neck, trunk, limb, appendicular ( bones), axial  
sagittal plane   divides body into left and right parts  
Frontal (coronal) plane   divides body into anterior and posterior (belly and back)  
transverse (horizontal) plane   divides body into superior and inferior planes (top and bottom)  
Dorsal body cavity   protects nervous system. Cranial cavity (encloses brain), Vertebral cavity (encases spinal cord)  
Ventral body cavity   houses internal organs. Thoracic cavity, abdominopelvic cavity  
Body Cavity regions    
Superior   toward head  
Inferior   toward feet  
Anterior   nearer the front of body  
Posterior   nearer the back of body  
medial   nearer to the median plane of body  
lateral   farther from the median plane of body  
proximal   nearer to attachment of a limb or structure  
distal   farther away from attachment of limb or structure  
superficial   nearer to surface  
deep   farther from surface  


   


 
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Created by: carolinegurnsey