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module 1

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Pacific Ocean Basin   largest and deepest basin (a very large depression or bowl in the Earth's surface)  
Atlantic Ocean Basin   the next largest basin in size  
Indian Ocean Basin   it is a little smaller than the Atlantic but similar in depth  
Arctic Ocean Basin   smallest and shallowest basin  
plastic rock   slow-flowing material that behaves sometime like a liquid and sometimes like a solid  
oceanic crust   part of the Earth that is covered in ocean  
basalt   solidified lava usually dark in color  
continental crust   part of the Earth that is covered in land  
granite   chemically different from basalt and has a lighter color  
continental drift   the separation of Pangaea  
Pangaea   all the continents as one large supercontinent  
plate tectonics   a process involving the movement of large plates on the Earth's mantle  
mid-ocean ridge   a continuous chain of underwater volcanic mountains encompassing the Earth  
trench   a system of deep depressions  
sediment   loose mud or sand that settles to the bottom of the ocean floor  
magnetic anomalies   magnetic particles that are pointing in the "wrong direction"  
rift   a crack in the Earth's crust  
seafloor spreading   the process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges  
catastrophic plate tectonics   predicts very rapid plate movements during the worldwide Flood that occurred in Noah's day  
subduction   the downward movement of one plate into the Earth's mantle when two plates collide  
shear boundary   no new plate material is formed an none is destroyed  
continental shelf   the gently sloped shallow section of the edge of a continent extending from the shore to the point where the slope gets steeper  
shelf break   the outer edge of the shelf where the bottom begins to become steeper  
continental slope   the steeper section of a continental edge extending seaward from the continental shelf  
continental rise   the gently sloping area at the base of the continental slope  
abyssal plain   the last region of the sea floor and is almost flat  
hydrogen bond   when each end on one water molecule attracts the oppositely charged end of other water molecules resulting in this weak bond  
surface tention   a flexible "skin" at the surface of the water and it helps hold water molecules close to one another at the surface of a body of water  
specific heat   the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1*c  
solvent   a substance that can dissolve into another substance  
slats   made of particles that have opposite electrical charges  
ions   electrically charged particles  
salinity   the total amount of salt dissolved in a solvent  
parts per thousands   expresses the number of grams of salt left behind  
o/oo   parts per thousands  
control   a group or individual used as a standard of comparison for checking the results of a survey or experiment  
thermocline   a steep temperature gradient in a body of water such as a lake, marked by a layer above and below the water is at different temperatures, about 200 to 1,500 meters (660 to 5,000 feet)  
coriolis effect   the way in which the reaction of the earth bends the path of winds and resulting sea currents  
trade winds   winds that bends east and approaches the equator at a degree of 45*  
westerlies   winds that bend east and travels away from the equator  
polar easteries   northernmost and southernmost winds  
gyres   large, mostly circular systems of surface currents driven by the wind  
spring tide   a time of largest tidal range due to the gravitational pull of the aligned sun and moon (during full moon and new moon)  
neap tide   a time of smallest tidal range due to the moon and sun being located at right angles to each other (during quarter moons)  
surface layer   is about 100 to 200 meters (330 to 660 feet) thick, and is subjected to wind, waves, and currents  
deep layer   below 1,500 meters (5,000 feet), is uniformly cold and much thicker than the other two layers  
water column   a group of water layers  
low-stability water column   when the layers' densities are not very different from one another, however, it is much easier for them to mix  
overturn   when the surface water sinks, displacing the less dense water below  
By chemical and physical differences in the rocks. Oceanic crust is composed mainly of basalt, and the continental crust mainly of granite.   Geologically speaking, what are the differences between the crusts of the "oceans" and the crusts of the "continents"?  
Two plates are sliding past one another, a large amount of friction restricts their movement until a release of pressure results in a earthquake.   If a specific location in the world is known for experiencing a large amount of earthquakes throughout modern history, what would you propose is occurring in the earth's crust underneath that area?  
The surface layer is a well mixed layer exposed to winds and currents and is generally warmer in temperature. The deep layer is uniformly cold and much thicker than the surface layer. The thermocline separates them and is a transitional zone between them.   Describe the 2 major layers of the deep ocean and the feature that separates them.  
During full moon or new moon. Because of the gravitational pull of the aligned sun and moon.   During which phase (or phases) of the moon are tidal ranges the largest and why?  
It would do a circular motion under the water then go back up to their original position.   Where do water molecules move in a surface wave?  
The gyres would flow in the opposite direction.   Suppose the earth rotated opposite of the direction it currently rotates. What effect would that have on the directions of the gyres?  
They don't move in a straight line because of the Coriolis effect.   Why do winds not move in a straight line on the earth?  
Its body was acclimated to the extra pressure of the water above its habitat. When it was brought to the surface very quickly, the gasses in its body experienced much less pressure so they expanded, resulting in the bloated look, causing it to die.   A fisherman was deep-sea fishing and pulled up a large bottom-dwelling grouper, able to bring it up to the surface very quickly, but was surprised to see that it appeared extremely bloated and didn't survive coming to the surface. What happened?  
The wavelengths of blue light can penetrate much deeper than those of other colors. Also, the blue sky reflects off the surface of the ocean.   Why is the ocean blue?  
Evaporation will result in a greater salinity of the water left behind. Then water could begin to sink to a lower level in the ocean. a drop in temperature will do the same thing because colder water is denser than warmer water.   What will happen to the water near the ocean surface if a portion of the surface layer experiences excess evaporation? What will happen if that portion experiences a large drop in temperature?  
The water has a high specific heat.   If a marine organism lives in an area where there are drastic changes in the weather resulting in extremely high and low air temperatures, what property of water prevents the organism from "feeling" such temperatures.  
Hydrogen bonding keeps the water from having severely colder, boiling, and freezing temperatures.   What one major property of water helps it hold its molecules together, keeping it from having severely colder boiling and freezing temperatures?  
Most marine life will be fund at a continental shelf.   Although there is a large surface area under the oceans of the earth do you find most of the marine life?  
The Atlantic Ocean Basin has the most oceanic crust formation, and the Pacific Ocean Basin has the most oceanic plate destruction.   Ocean crust is constantly being destroyed and reformed. Considering the 4 large ocean basins in the world, which ocean has the most oceanic crust formation? Which has the most oceanic crust destruction?  
The main type of plate interaction is subduction.   Given the fact that most of the deep ocean trenches in creation are located in the Pacific Ocean, what is the main type of plate interaction that occurs in the ocean?  


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