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Science Test March 2017 Form and Function

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 Question
 Answer
What is a Structure?   Anything made of parts put together for a particular purpose (or purposes)
What is the difference between Form and Function?   Form: the shape and physical appearance of a Structure Function: the task or purpose of the structure
What is Force?   A push or a pull
What is the definition of Gravity?   The force of attraction between all objects
What are the effects of Gravity?   -Gravity that pulls objects of small mass together is weak *is noticeable when at least one of the objects has a large mass. *Gravity of objects w/ very large mass (earth) can move object w/ small mass (eraser) large distance- why objects fall to ground
What is the difference between Applied and Non-Contact Forces?   Applied Forces: forces that push or pull objects when objects come in contact with one another Non-Contact Forces: forces that push or pull things without contact
Examples of Non-Contact Forces   *Gravity *Magnetic Force (forces that pull two magnets together *Electrostatic Force (the force that causes static cling)
Examples of Applied Forces   *Feet putting downward force on bike pedals *Oar of boat striking the water *Baseball bat striking a ball
What is the difference between Mass and Weight?   Mass: the quantity of matter in an object Weight: the force of gravity acting downward on an object
What instruments are used to measure mass?   Balance and a scale
What instruments are used to measure weight   Newton Spring Scale **because weight is a measure of force, it has a magnitude and a direction. We might say that a mass of 1 kg had a weight of almost 10 N downward
What are the units used to measure mass?   Grams (g) and Kilograms (kg)
What are the units used to measure weight?   Newtons (N)
What are 2 different ways that we can describe force?   1. DIRECTION OF FORCE: up, down, left, right or sideways. in diagrams the direction of arrows shows the direction of force 2. MAGNITUDE OF FORCE: strength of force (greater/lesser) in diagrams the thicker the arrow the greater the magnitude
What is Load?   A force acting on a structure
What is a Static Load?   Loads acting downward on structures that result from gravity
What are 2 classes of Static Loads?   1. DEAD LOAD: the weight of the structure itself 2. LIVE LOAD: the weight of the objects that a structure supports
What are Dynamic Loads?   Loads on a structure that are caused by forces other than gravity
What are some examples of forces that act on a structure to create dynamic loads   Moving water High winds Car striking guardrail Baseball bat hitting ball
What is a Solid Structure?   Strong structure relying on solid construction materials to support loads. They have a large mass. A well made structure can last for a very long time
Examples of a Solid Structure   -Concrete Dam -Wooden telephone pole -Marble Statue
What is a Frame Structure?   Uses a network of materials that support each other. A single part of structure cannot support the mass of structure by itself. Individual parts are connected & require special support so they don't bend/collapse. Widely used, sturdy, lighter than solid
Examples of Frame Structures   -Body's skeleton -Goalie's net -Spider web -Network of steel or wood beams supporting a bridge or building
What is a Shell Structure?   Hollow, curved shape. Can be very light and yet have a great deal of strength and rigidity.
Examples of Shell Structures   -Bird's beak -pop can -bike helmet
What is a Combination Structure?   Structure containing various solid, frame and shell components
Example of a Combination Structure   THE HUMAN BODY FRAME: Human skeleton (bones that hold muscles, tendons & ligaments) SHELL: Skull (curved, hard and hollow) SOLID: Femur (large solid bone located in thigh)
What is Internal Force?   Forces acting between two parts of a body
What is External Force?   A force acting on an object or structure from the outside
What are some examples of External Forces that act on buildings?   -Wind -Earthquake -Weight of people in a building -The weight of the building
What is the difference between Point of Application and Plane of Application of Force   POINT OF APPLICATION OF FORCE: the location of an object where the force is applied PLANE OF APPLICATION OF FORCE: An imaginary flat surface through which the applies force passes
What is Tension Force? Examples   Internal Force pulling the particles of an object apart. Example: Trampoline, guitar strings
What is Compression Force? Examples   Internal Force that presses or squeezes the particles of an object together. Examples: Mattress springs (when you lie on the mattress), laying your head on a pillow, stepping on the sole of shoe
What is Torsion Force? Examples   Internal twisting forces created in an object as a result of a twisting motion being applied to the object. Can be created when both ends of a structure are twisted or when only one end of structure is twisted Ex: ringing out a wash cloth, door knob
What is Shear Force? Examples   Internal force acting on an object as a result of pushes/pulls in opposite directions usually causing rips or tears. Ex:: scissors, a strong wind blowing horizontally against a tree causing shear force inside tree, can cause it to bend or break.

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