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Integumentary

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.
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Question
Answer
Epidermis develops from the   ectoderm  
Dermis develops from the   mesoderm  
Skin contributes to the   regulation of body temperature, sensory perceptions, synthesis of Vitamin D, emotional expression, and serves as reservoir of blood  
The skin has how many major layers   three  
The outer, thinner layer of the skin that consists of epithelial tissue is   the epidermis  
The inner, thicker layer of the skin that consists of connective tissue is   the dermis  
The subcutaneous layer located underneath the dermis is a   loose areolar/adipose connective tissue that attaches the skin to the underlying tissues and organs  
The epidermis is composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelieum which contains four major CELL TYPES known as   keratinocytes, melanocytes, langerhans cells, and merkel cells  
Keratinocytes   make up 90% of the cells, produce keratin- a tough fibrous protein that provides protection  
Melanocytes   produce melanin pigment that protects against damage by ultraviolet radiation  
Langerhans cells   are macrophages that originated in the red bone marrow and are involved in immune responses  
Merkel cells   function in the sensation of touch along with the other adjacent tactile discs (receptors)  
The epidermis is composed of four layers in thin skin and five in thick skin which are   stratum basale, stratum spinosum,stratum granulosum, [stratum lucidum], and stratum corneum  
Stratum basale or stratum germinativum is   always the bottom (deepest) layer where continuous cell division occurs to produce all other layers  
Stratum spinosum is   a layer of 8-10 keratinocytes  
Stratum granulosum are   non-diving cells of the third layer that are filled with granules of keratin  
Stratum lucidum is the   fourth layer that is only present in thick skin of fingertips, palms, and soles  
Stratum corneumis   always outermost layer composed of 20 layers of flat cell-remnants which are dead keratinocytes filled with keratin protein and no cellular organelles. Continuously shed.  
Keratinization   is the process of replacing viable cells in the stratum basale with more and more of the waxy keratin protein as cells move from the deepest layer to the surface layer  
An even thicker buildup of keratinocytes in the stratum corneum after constant friction can produce a   callus  
An excess of keratinized cells shed from the scalp is   dandruff  
Thin (hairy) skin   covers all body regions except the palms, palmar surfaces of digits, and soles.  
Thick (hairless) skin   covers the palms, palmar surfaces of digits, and soles  
Skin pigment produced by melanocytes in the stratum basale is   melanin; eumelanin (brown to black), pheomelanin (yellow to red)  
Clusters of concentrated melanin triggered by exposure to sunlight are   freckles  
Rate of melanin production determines   skin color  
Chronic lesions of the skin that are benign are   nevi; birthmarks or moles  
Malignant melanoma is a cancer of   melanocytes  
A chronic disorder that causes depigmentation patches in the skin   Vitiligo  
Congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes due to a defect of an enzyme involved in the production of melanin is   Albinism  
The dermis is composed of connective tissue containing   collagen and elastic fibers  


   


 
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