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Digestive System Vocab Chapter 12

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Term
Definition
Ingestion   the taking in of food  
Peristalsis   involuntary movements of intestinal muscles; wavelike movements that push contents forward  
Digestion   Physical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller molecules  
Absorption   movement of nutrients into the bloodstream  
Defecation   removal of indigestible waste  
Gastrointestinal Tract   Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small and Large Intestine  
Accessory Organs   Teeth, Tongue, Salivary Glands, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas  
Mucosa   mucous membrane attached to thin layer of visceral muscle  
Submucosa   loose connective tissue  
Muscularis   skeletal or smooth muscle  
Adventitia   serous membrane made of connective and epithelial tissue; also called visceral peritoneum or serosa  
Mouth or Oral Cavity Functions   Taste, Mechanical breakdown of food, Chemical digestion of carbohydrates, Amylase  
Mouth or Oral Cavity Structure   lined with mucous membrane, floor formed by tongue, formed by had and soft palate, formed by cheeks, opening guarded by lips  
Three Pair of Salivary Glands   empty secretions into the mouth; Parotid glands, Submandibular glands, Sublingual glands  
Functions of Saliva   dissolves chemicals in food so they can be detected by the taste buds, moistens food so that is can be swallowed; contains salivary amylase, a digestive enzyme  
Functions of Tongue   food manipulation, taste, speech  
Structure of Tongue   skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane, lingual frenulum, papillae, taste buds  
Salivary Glands   3 glands: Parotid, Submandibular, Sublingual, 99.5% water, saliva, amylase, mucin to lubricate food, lysozyme to destroy bacteria, buffered by bicarbonates and phosphates  
Mechanical Digestion   physical process of breaking food into smaller pieces  
Chemical Digestion   when enzymes catalyze chemical reactions that lead to the breakdown of food molecules  
Mastication   chewing and grinding of food by the teeth  
Teeth   Structure: crown (covered in enamel), neck, root;  
Dentin   bonelike substance enclosing pulp cavity  
Cementum   covers root  
Periodontal Ligament   anchors tooth  
Incisors   blade-shaped teeth at the front of the mouth; clipping or cutting  
Cuspids (canines)   cone-shaped with a pointed tip; tearing or slashing  
Bicuspids and Molars   flattened tops; crushing, mashing or grinding  
Wisdom Teeth   additional set of molars that often develop in location where they cannot erupt  
Vestigial Structures   structure in an organism that has lost all or most of its original function in the course of evolution, such as human appendixes  
Cavities or Caries   occur when naturally-occurring overgrow due to the of presence of food particles, bacteria produces acid which dissolves the calcium phosphate enamel  
Root Canal   will clean out and dissolve all the tissue in the pulp cavity, leaving an antibiotic paste behind; tooth no longer has any living cells at this point  
Pharynx   common passageway for food and air  
Pharynx Divisions   Nasopharynx, Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx  
Pharynx Functions   begins swallowing (deglutition), forms food bolus, air passageways close  
Bolus   chewed, moistened ball of food  
Uvula   moves backwards, blocks the nasal cavity  
Epiglottis   folds down, blocks the trachea  
Esophagus Function   secrete mucus. transport food  
Peristalsis   smooth muscle contractions, pushs food  
Lower Esophageal Sphincter   controls passage of food into the stomach  
Stomach Functions   chemical and mechanical breakdown of food;  
Stomach   muscular organ made of 4 sections: Cardiac, Fundus, Body and Pyloric  
Cardiac (stomach section)   region closest to the esophagus and heart  
Fundus (stomach section)   superior bulge in stomach  
Body (stomach section)   middle section  
Pyloric (stomach section)   inferior region, closest to the small intestines  
Rugue   internal folds in the stomach, increase the surface area for digestion  
Simple Columnar Epithelium   innermost lining of the stomach  
Cardiac Sphincter   ring of smooth muscle intended to allow food into the stomach, but not out; exceptions include vomiting, heartburn, acid reflux  
Gastrin   a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric juice, and is secreted into the bloodstream by the stomach wall in response to the presence of food.  
Gastrin causes the stomach glands to produce:   Pepsinogen (breaks down proteins into amino acids), Mucus (to protect the stomach from being dissolved or digested), Hydrochloric Acid (lowers the PH)  
Chyme   partially digested food  
Pyloric Sphincter   stomach releases small amounts of chyme into the small intestine at a time through this  
Small Intestine Function   absorption of digested food  
Small Intestine Divisions   Duodenum: 10 inches, Jejunum: 8 feet, Ileum: 12 feet  
Duodenum   1st section of small intestine; where most digestion occurs; digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver (gall bladder) are both sent here  
The Pancreas releases...   bicarbonate and enzymes into the duodenum: Bicarbonate, Pancreatic Amylase, Lipase, Nuclease, Trypsin  
The Liver releases bile,.....   which separates fats into smaller droplets to increase the rate of digestion by lipase  
Jeunum-ileum   absorption of the end-products of digestion occurs all along here  
Villi   are present in all cells along the intestines to increase the surface area for absorption; site of nutrient absorption; each villus is covered by microvilli  
Hepatic Portal Vein   substances are transported to the liver through this  
Crypts of Lieberkuhn   secrete digestive enzymes  
Brunner's Glands   secrete alkaline mucus  
Plicae   folds in the small intestine  
Microvilli   increase absortion area  
Villus contains:   arteriole, venule, capillary network and lacteal  
Large Intestine   reabsorption of water, manufacture and absorption of vitamins, formation and expulsion of feces; no digestive enzymes are present here  
Anus   controlled by internal and external sphincter  
Rectum   terminates at the anus  
Cecum   pouch-like area (cul-de-sac) containing the first part of the large intestine; joins the ileum, the last segment of the small intestine; appendix is attached here  
Colon   Ascending, Transverse, Descending  
Haustrae   are the small pouches caused by sacculation, which give the colon its segmented appearance.  
Mass Peristalsis   Forceful peristaltic movements of short duration in which contents are moved from one section of the colon to another, occurring three or four times daily  
Haustral Churining   is contraction of the colon resulting in mixing and dividing the contents into smaller pieces in the haustra  
Large Intestine Contracts....   3 to 12 contractions per minute (average 3 to 4)  
Feces   semisolid mass originating from chyme; contain water, inorganic salts, epithelial cells, Escherichia coli  
Pancreas   a gland, situated near the stomach, that secretes a digestive fluid into the intestine through one or more ducts and also secretes the hormone insulin  
Pancreatic Acinar   Acinar cells are the exocrine (exo=outward) cells of the pancreas that produce and transport enzymes that are passed into the duodenum where they assist in the digestion of food  
Islets of Langerhans   insulin(beta cell) and glucagon(alpha cell)  
Insulin   stimulates the absorption of glucose form blood and production of glycogen for storage  
Glucagon   stimulates the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, raising blood sugar  
Liver   makes bile, detoxifies any poisons absorbed by the digestive tract  
Liver Functions   produces heparin, prothrombin, thrombin; phagocytosis of bacteria; stores excess carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins; converts toxins into less harmful substances; produces bile salts  
Bile   greenish, yellow, thick, sticky fluid that consists of bile salts, electrolytes, bile pigments, cholesterol and other lipids  
Bile Functions   aid in digestion by absorbing cholesterol, other fats and fat-soluble vitamins; eliminate waste products (mainly hemoglobin)  
Bilirubin   a reddish-yellow water insoluble pigment occurring especially in bile and blood and causing jaundice if accumulated in excess  
Biliary Tract   Bile flows out of the liver through the left and right hepatic ducts => join to form the common hepatic duct => joins with cystic duct (connected to the gallbladder) to form the common bile duct  
Common Bile Duct   enters the small intestine at the sphincter of Oddi (a ring-shaped muscle), located a few inches below the stomach.  
Gallbladder   pear-shaped sac; located in depression on surface of liver; stores and concentrates bile until needed; enters duodenum through common bile duct  
Appendix   is a small dead-end tube connected at the beginning of the ascending colon; believed to be a vestigial structure  
Mesentary   holds intestines together  
Greater and Lesser Omentum   holds stomach in place with other abdominal organs  
Peritoneum   serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera  
Retroperitoneal Space   Anatomical space in abdominal cavity behind the parietal peritoneum; Superior boundary:12th thoracic vertebra and 12th rib; Inferior boundary: sacrum and iliac crest    
Retroperitoneal Viscera   Duodenum, Pancreas, Colon, part of Esophagus and Rectum, Suprarenal Glands, Aorta/IVC, Ureters, Kidneys  
Thrush   is a condition in which the fungus Candida albicans accumulates on the lining of your mouth; it's more likely to occur in babies, the elderly, and in people with suppressed immune systems or certain health conditions, or those who take certain medications  
Achalasia   is an esophageal motility disorder involving the smooth muscle layer of the esophagus and LES; chara by incomplete LES relaxation, increased LES tone, and lack of peristalsis of the esophagus in the absence of other explanations like cancer or fibrosis  
Lower Esophageal Sphincter   LES  
Esophageal Varices   are extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins in the lower third of the esophagus. They are most often a consequence of portal hypertension, commonly due to cirrhosis; variceal ligation, banding or sclerotherapy  
Barrett's Esophagus   metaplasia of esophageal lining (displacement with intestinal columnar epithelium); Usually from GERD, males over 50; Common precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma  
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)   known as a peptic ulcer or stomach ulcer, is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine, or occasionally the lower esophagus  
Peptic Ulcer Disease Symptoms   duodenal ulcer are waking at night with upper abdominal pain or upper abdominal pain that improves with eating; With a gastric ulcer the pain may worsen with eating  
Peptic Ulcer Disease Causes   the bacteria Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)  
Peptic Ulcer Disease Complications   Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Perforation, Penetration, Gastric Outlet Obstruction, Cancer  
Appendicitis   inflammation of the appendix, caused by a blockage of the hollow portion of the appendix, most commonly by a calcified "stone" made of feces; appendectomy  
Celiac Disease   is an autoimmune disorder affecting primarily the small intestine that occurs in people who are genetically predisposed; caused by a reaction to gluten  
Celiac Disease Symptoms   pale, loose, and greasy stool (steatorrhoea) and weight loss or failure to gain weight  
Celiac Disease Diagnosis and Treatment   Diagnosis is typically made by a combination of blood antibody tests and intestinal biopsies; The only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet  
Crohn's Disease   is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus; is caused by a combination of environmental, immune and bacterial factors in genetically susceptible individuals  
Crohn's Disease Symptoms and Treatment   abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever, and weight loss; no cure, treat symptoms only  
Diverticulosis   condition of having diverticula in the colon that are not inflamed. These are outpockets of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through weaknesses of muscle layers in the colon wall. They typically cause no symptoms.  
Hirschsprung's Disease   birth defect that affects the nerve cells in the large intestine. These nerve cells control the muscles that normally push food and waste through the large intestine; treatment consists of removal of abnormal section of the colon followed by reanastomosis  
Ulcerative Colitis (UC)   is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum; cause unknown  
Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms   abdominal pain and diarrhea mixed with blood, weight loss, fever, anemia  
Ulcerative Colitis Treatment   Dietary changes may improve symptoms, a number of medications are used to treat symptoms and bring about and maintain remission, removal of the colon and rectum can cure the disease  
Volvulus   is when a loop of intestine twists around itself and the mesentery that supports it, resulting in a bowel obstruction  
Cirrhosis   is a condition in which the liver slowly deteriorates and is unable to function normally due to chronic, or long lasting, injury. Scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue and partially blocks the flow of blood through the liver.  
Cirrhosis Causes   Chronic alcohol abuse, Chronic viral hepatitis (B and C), Fat accumulating in the liver  
Cirrhosis Complications   Portal Hypertension, Splenomegaly, Bleeding, Hepatic Encephalopathy, Increase Risk of Liver Cancer  
Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE)   a spectrum of potentially reversible neuropsychiatric abnormalities seen in patients with liver dysfunction after exclusion of unrelated neurologic and/or metabolic abnormalities.  
Cholelithiasis   Gallstone disease refers to the condition where gallstones are either in the gallbladder or common bile duct  
Choledocholithiasis   gallstones migrate into the ducts of the biliary tract; frequently associated with obstruction of the biliary tree, which in turn can lead to acute ascending cholangitis; cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal)  
Hepatitis   Acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to viral, bacteria infection, or drugs, alcohol, toxins or parasites  
Hepatitis A   fecal-oral route, or poor hygiene, contaminated water or shellfish  
Hepatitis B   blood and blood fluid of infected person, possible cirrhosis  
Hepatitis C   IV route in blood transfusion, needle sharing, possible cirrhosis, curable now  
Pancreatitis   inflammation of the pancreas; caused by gallstones and heavy alcohol use  
Pancreatitis Symptoms   severe upper abdominal or left upper quadrant burning pain radiating to the back, nausea, and vomiting that is worse with eating  
Pancreatitis Treatment   intravenous fluids; pain medication; antibiotics; typically no eating or drinking is allowed (NPO); a tube may be placed into the stomach(NG tube)  
Hemorrhoids   The veins around your anus tend to stretch under pressure and may bulge or swell. Swollen veins (hemorrhoids) can develop from increased pressure in the lower rectum  
Hemorrhoids Symptoms   Painless bleeding during bowel movements; Itching or irritation in the anal region; Pain or discomfort; Swelling around the anus; A lump near anus, which may be sensitive or painful (may be a thrombosed hemorrhoid  
Internal Hemorrhoids   These lie inside the rectum. Occasionally, straining can push an internal hemorrhoid through the anal opening. This is known as a protruding or prolapsed hemorrhoid  
Thrombosed Hemorrhoids   Sometimes blood may pool in an external hemorrhoid and form a clot (thrombus) that can result in severe pain, swelling, inflammation and a hard lump near the anus.  
Polyps, Colorectal   A colon polyp is a small clump of cells that forms on the lining of the colon; most are harmless; some develop into colon cancer  
Colorectal Cancer Signs   worsening constipation, blood in the stool, decrease in stool caliber (thickness), loss of appetite, loss of weight, and nausea or vomiting in someone over 50 years old  
Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment   Diagnosis: biopsy( colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy); Treatments used for colorectal cancer may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy  
Organs that are not covered by the peritoneum...   Retroperitoneal  
Parts of the Small Intestine   Duodenum, Ileum and Jejunum  
The portion of the large intestine that extends in a horizontal direction...   Transverse Colon  
A sac-like organ that is attached to the undersurface of the liver, stores and concentrates bile...   Gallbladder  
What two biliary ducts merge to form the common bile duct?   The left and right hepatic ducts  
   


   






 
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