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Fluid, Electrolyte, Acid-Base Balance

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.
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Question
Answer
which compartment has the largest volume of water?   ICF  
the most intracellular electrolyte is   potassium  
the most abundant extracellular electrolyte is   sodium  
what hormone helps excrete & get rid of sodium?   ANP  
which compartment has the smallest volume of water?   plasma  
the type of fluid that varies the most is   water loss in urine  
the ___ drains blood from the glomereular capillaries   efferent arteriole  
least abundant ion in interstitial fluid?   calcium  
driving force for water intake?   thirst mechanism  
osmolality measures the body's...   water balance & electrolytes  
this type of water loss is unavoidable. water leaves the body via skin or lungs.   obligatory water loss  
sensible water loss consist of....   sweat, urine, feces  
baroreceptors detect...   pressure changes  
rising BP causes vasodilation which leads to...   water loss  
lowering BP causes vasoconstriction which...   conserves sodium & water  
female sex hormones increase renal retention of sodium. they also...   enhance sodium & water excretion in urine  
which hormone promotes sodium reabsorption to maintain blood volume & pressure?   aldosterone  
ANP inhibits which hormones release?   aldosterone. ADH. renin  
excess potassium can ....   decrease action potential - leads to depolarization  
not enough potassium can cause ___   nonresponsiveness  
potassium is required for...   neuromuscular junction  
too much or too little potassium can...   interrupt heart's electrical activity - can lead to death  
reabsorption of calcium occurs in which tubule?   DCT  
calcium is regulated by ___   PTH  
what is alkalosis?   blood pH over 7.45  
when a blood pH is 7.35 and under, it is referred to as_   acidosis  
how do we regulate acidosis & alkalosis?   chemical buffers. brain stem respiratory centers. renal mechanisms.  
chemical buffers are activated...   instanteously  
how long does it take brain stem respiratory centers to activate?   within minutes  
this type of regulation takes a couple of hours to a day to regulate..   renal mechanism  
the renal mechanism is able to make....   the biggest changes  
respiratory acidosis has...   low pH & low CO2 partial pressures  
respiratory alkalosis has a ___ and __   high pH & high CO2 partial pressure  
when too much carbon dioxide has been accumulated...it is known as ___   respiratory acidosis  
shallow breathing is apart of respiratory __   acidosis  
when you exhale too much air too quickly, it can lead to hyperventilation which is referred to as ___ ___   respiratory alkalosis  
this type of pH imbalance has a low pH and bicarbonate level.   metabolic acidosis  
in metabolic alkalosis, the pH and bicarbonate levels are...   high  
___ and __ are causes of metabolic alkalosis   vomiting - ingestion of antacids  
excess alcohol ingestion, excessive loss of HCO3, accumulation of lactic acid, ketosis, kidney failure happens due to the result of...   metabolic acidosis  


   


 
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Created by: Mariahj25