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Anatomy / EXCI 254

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Question
Answer
volume of blood pumped per day   14,000 L  
rate of blood circulation at rest   5 L / dat  
What are the layers of the heart?   1) Fibrous layer 2)Outer parietal pericardium (serous) 3) Inner visceral pericardium (serous)  
Space between 2 serous layers?   Pericardial cavity  
Fluid build-up in heart cavity?   Cardiac tamponade  
Outermost layer of heart wall   Epicardium (visceral pericardium)  
Cardiac muscle tissue   Myocardium  
Innermost cardiac layer   Endocardium  
Features of Endocardium   1) Smooth lining of chambers 2) covers valves of heart 3) continuous with endothelial lining of large blood vessels  
Vessels through Right Atrium   1) Superior Vena Cava 2) Inferior Vena Cava 3) Coronary Sinus  
Valves of right ventricle?   3cuspid valve and pulmonary semilunar valve  
Valves of left ventricle?   2cuspid/mitral valves and aortic semilunar valve  
Origin of coronary artery   base of ascending aorta  
left coronary artery   1) supplies both ventricles 2) supplies left atrium  
Right coronary artery   supplies both ventricles  
posterior coronary veins   1)small cardiac vein 2) coronary sinus 3) middle cardiac vein  
anterior coronary veins   1) anterior cardiac vein 2) great cardiac vein  
Phase of contraction   Systole  
Phase of relaxation   Diastole  
S1   "Lubb" = closing of AV valves, beginning of ventricular systole  
S2   "Dupp" = closing of semilunar valves, end of ventricular systole  
S3   Ventricular filling  
S4   Atrial systole  
Inhibit speed of contraction   ANS, vagus nerve  
pattern of conduction of the heart   SA node - AV node - His - Purkinje fibers  
location of SA node   Right atrium, inferior to superior vena cava  
location of AV node   Atrioventricular septum  
location of bundle of His   interventricular septum  
SA versus AV conduction   SA = same-time contraction between atria while AV = delay between atria and ventricles  
responsible for contraction of ventricular myocardium   Purkinje fibers  
circulation of deoxygenated blood   right ventricle - pulmonary trunk - right/left pulmonary arteries - capillaries around alveoli  
When does heart develop   3rd week of gestation  
original tissue of heart   mesoderm  
Development of endothelial tubes   truncus arteriosus - bulbus cordis - ventricle - atrium - sinus venosus  
first heartbeat   day 22  
changes in pregnancy   30%+ stroke volume, cardiac output 30%+, HR + 15%, blood volume +50%  
becomes the Ligamentum Venosum   Ductus Venosus  
becomes the Ligamentum Arteriosum   Ductus Arteriosus  
becomes the medical umbilical ligament   Umbilical Arteries  
becomes Ligamentum Teres   Umbilical Vein  
structures necessary to fetal circulation   placenta, ductus arteriosus, foramen ovale  
Innervation to SA node   parasympathetic  
slowing of the heatbeat   bradycardia  
acceleration of the heartbeat   tachycardia  
extends the circumference of the heart, separates atria and ventricles   coronary sulcus  
left coronary artery branches into:   anterior a. and circumflex a.  


   


 
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Created by: Schnee