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Respiratory System

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Responsibilities of the respiratory system   Respiration = exchange of gases between the body and air, production of sound, assisting in the body's defense against foreign materials  
External Respiration   Oxygen is inhaled into the lungs  
Internal Respiration   Inhaled oxygen circulates from the pulmonary bloodstream into the lungs  
Nose   Entrance to nose = nostrils or nares(singular-naris) Air enters through nose and mouth  
Nasal Cavity   Divided into left and right chambers by a dividing wall call the septum  
Paranasal Sinuses   Hollow areas or cavities within the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity, lighten the skull and enhance the sound of the voice, lined with mucous membranes  
Cilia   Hairlike projections on mucous membranes  
Pharynx   Throat, Commonly divided into three sections  
Epiglottis   Covers the opening of the larynx when swallowing  
Larynx   Contains the vocal cords, also know as the voicebox  
Trachea   Windpipe  
Bronchi   Trachea branches into two tubes called the bronchi, each bronchi leads to a separate lung  
Bronchioles   Smallest branches of the bronchi  
Alveoli   Air sacs, pulmonary parenchyma  
Lungs   Two coned-shaped, spongy organs consisting of the aveoli, blood vessels, elastic tissue, and nerves. LEFT LUNG: has two lobes RIGHT LUNG: Has three lobes  
Apex   Uppermost part of lung  
Base   Lower part of lung  
Hilum   Portion in midline region where blood vessels, nerves, and bronchial tubes enter and exit the lungs  
Pleura   Double-folded membrane that surrounds the lungs  
Parietal Pleura   Outer layer of the pleura, which lines the thoracic cavity  
Visceral Pleura   Inner layer of pleura, which covers the lungs  
Pleural space   Small space between the pleural membranes  
Inhalation   Inspiration, Air drawn into lungs  
Exhalation   Expiration, Air is forced out of lungs  
Inspection   Visual examination of the external surface of the body  
Palpation   Process of examination of the body using hands and fingers to the external surface of the body  
Auscultation   Process of listening for sounds within the body  
Percussion   Use of the fingertips to tap the body lightly but sharply to determine the position, size, and consistency of an underlying structure and the presence of fluid or pus in a cavity  
Apnea   Temporary cessation of breathing  
Bradypnea   Abnormally slow breathing  
Cough   Forceful and sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration, air nosily expelled  
Nonproductive   No expectoration of sputum, Dry cough  
Productive   Expectoration of sputum, wet cough  
Types of sputum   Mucoid, Mucopurulent, purulent, serous  
Cyanosis   Slightly Bluish, grayish, slatelike, or dark coloration of the skin due to the presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood  
Dysphonia   Difficulty in speaking, Hoarseness  
Epistaxis   Hemorrhage from the nose, nosebleed  
Expectoration   Act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs  
Hemoptysis   Expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs  
Hypercapnia   Increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood  
Hypoxemia   Insufficient oxygenation of the blood  
Hypoxia   Deficiency of oxygen  
Kussmaul Respirations   Very deep, gasping type of respiration usually associated with sever diabetes acidosis  
Orthopnea   Respiratory condition in which there is dyspnea when the patient is in any position other than standing or sitting upright  
Pleural Rub   Frcition rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space  
Rales   Abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest produced by passage of air through bronchi that contain secretion of exudate or that are constricted by spasm or a thickening of their walls  
Rhinorrhea   Thin, watery discharge from the nose  
Rhonchi   Rattlings in the throat produced by air through obstructed airways  
Stridor   Harsh sound, High pitched and resembling the blowing of wind due to the obstruction of air passages  
Tachypnea   Abnormal rapidity of breathing  
Wheeze   Whistling sound or sighing sound resulting from the narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway  


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Created by: Evyloveslife