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DNA and genes

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Nucleotide   Monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base  
Double Helix   Model that compares the structure of a DNA molecule, in which two strands wind around one another  
Base pairing rules   Rule that describes how nucleotides form bonds in DNA; Adenine (A) always bonds with thymine (T) and guanine (G) always bonds with cytosine (C)  
Replication   Process by which DNA is copied  
DNA polymerase   Enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides, forming an identical strand of DNA during replication  
central dogma   Theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins  
RNA   Nucleic acid molecule that allows for the transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis  
Transcription   Process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA  
RNA polmerase   Enzyme that catalyze the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template  
messenger RNA (mRNA)   From of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis  
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)   RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein; also used as a molecular clock  
transfer RNA (tRNA)   Form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis  
Translation   Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced  
Codon   Sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid  
Stop codon   Codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation  
Start codon   Codon that signals to ribosomes to begin translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein.  
Anticodon   Set of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation  


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Created by: hernaays1541