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SLS bio12 Digestion MR

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Term
Definition
absorption   a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin  
appendix   The appendix sits at the junction of the small intestine and large intestine. It’s a thin tube about four inches long. Normally, the appendix sits in the lower right abdomen.  
Bile   Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile helps with digestion  
cardiac sphincter   the valve between the distal end of the esophagus and the stomach; the physiological sphincter at the esophagogastric junction  
Chemical Digestion   The process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed and assimilated by the body.  
Digestive Enzymes   Digestive enzymes are enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.  
Duodenum   The first part of the small intestine, which receives partially digested food from the stomach and begins the absorption of nutrients.  
Emulsification   the breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, uniformly distributed particles. It is accomplished mainly by bile acids in the small intestine.  
Epiglottis   The epiglottis is a flap that is made of elastic cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the entrance of the larynx.  
Esophagus   The esophagus is the tube that carries food, liquids and saliva from your mouth to the stomach.  
Gall bladder   this is a small organ where bile is stored, before it is released into the small intestine.  
Gastric Juices   The colorless, watery, acidic digestive fluid that is secreted by various glands in the mucous membrane of the stomach and consists chiefly of hydrochloric acid, pepsin, rennin, and mucin.  
Insulin   Insulin is a peptide hormone, produced by beta cells of the pancreas, and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body  
Intestinal Juice   intestinal juice (succus entericus) refers to the clear to pale yellow watery secretions from the glands lining the small intestine walls.  
Lacteals   One of the lymphatic vessels that serve the small intestine  
Large intestine   The colon is the last part of the digestive system in most vertebrates. It extracts water and salt from solid wastes before they are eliminated from the body  
Lipase   Lipase is a protein (enzyme) released by the pancreas into the small intestine. It helps the body absorb fat.  
Maltase   Maltese is produced in the cells lining of the small intestine. It is a digestive enzyme that works to break down sugar maltose  
Microvillus   are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of cells  
Nuclease   A nuclease is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between the nucleotide subunits of nucleic acids  
Pancreas   gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system of vertebrates. It is both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as well as an exocrine gland, secreting pancreatic juice  
Pancreatic amylase   Any of a group of enzymes that are present in saliva, pancreatic juice, and parts of plants and catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to sugar to produce carbohydrate derivatives  
Pancreatic Juice   Any of a group of enzymes that are present in saliva, pancreatic juice, and parts of plants and catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to sugar to produce carbohydrate derivatives  
Pepsin   The powerful enzyme in gastric juice that digests proteins  
Peptidase   An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptides into amino acids  
Pharynx   The section of the alimentary canal that extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the larynx  
Physical Digestion   is the breakdown of food by physical means.  
Protease   is any enzyme that performs proteolysis, that is, begins protein catabolism by hydrolysis of the peptide bonds that link amino acids together in the polypeptide chain forming the protein.  
Pyloric Sphincter   the sphincter muscle of the pylorus that separates the stomach from the duodenum  
Salivary amylase   an enzyme in the saliva that converts starch into dextrin and maltose  
Salivary gland   any of three pairs of glands in the mouth and digestive system that secrete saliva for digestion  
Small intestine   the part of the intestine that runs between the stomach and the large intestine; the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum collectively.  
Sodium bicarbonate   a white crystalline soluble compound usually obtained by the Solvay process and used in effervescent drinks, baking powders, fire extinguishers  
Stomach   he internal organ in which the major part of the digestion of food occurs, being (in humans and many mammals) a pear-shaped enlargement of the alimentary canal linking the esophagus to the small intestine.  
Trypsin   a digestive enzyme that breaks down proteins in the small intestine. It is secreted by the pancreas in an inactive form, trypsinogen  
Villus   any of numerous minute elongated projections set closely together on a surface, typically increasing its surface area for the absorption of substances, in particular.  
Anaerobic bacteria   bacteria that do not live or grow in the presence of oxygen  
Anus   the opening at the end of the alimentary canal through which solid waste matter leaves the body  
Capillary   any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venues  
Digestive tract   series of organs in the digestive system through which food passes, nutrients are absorbed, and waste is eliminated  
Hydrochloric acid (HCL)   activates pepsinogen into the enzyme pepsin  
Liver   a large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates, involved in many metabolic processes.  
Pepsinogen   An inactive enzyme released by the parietal cells in the gastric pits of stomach.  
Peristalsis   pushes ingested food through the digestive tract towards its release at the anus.  
   


   






 
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