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Stack #202874

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

xerostomia   Dryness of the mouth caused by the lack of normal saliva secetion.  
-trophy   development  
-tomy   incision  
-scope   instrument  
-rrhea   discharge  
-plasty   surgical repair  
-phobia   dread, fear  
-opsy   veiw  
-ology   study of  
-ectomy   surgical removal of  
-cyte   cell  
-ate,-ize   use/action  
-algia   pain  
-rrhage   bleeding  
-ent   agent  
-pathy   disease  
-oma   tumor  
-ium   small, little  
-itis   inflamation of  
-ion   state, condition  
-id   condition  
-cele   swelling, hernia  
xanth/o   yellow  
cyan/o   blue  
albus   white  
erythr/o   red  
leuk/o   white  
chlor/o   green  
melan/o   black  
alba   violet  
temporal   temporal bone  
stoma   mouth  
orthos   straight, proper order  
mucosa   tissue lining an orifice  
mesial   middle, mid-plane  
maxilla   upper jaw  
mandible   lower jaw  
lingua   tongue  
labial   lip area  
incisor   incisor tooth  
glossa   tongue  
gingiva   gum tissue  
fluoride   chemical  
enamel   tooth enamel tissue  
distal   farthest from center  
dens   tooth  
occlude   occluding jaw, bite  
coronal   crown  
cheilo   lip  
buccal   cheek  
axis   midline  
apical   apex of a root  
alveolar   alveolus  
necrotic   dead tissue  
mastication   chewing  
myopathy   muscle disease  
lipoma   fat tumor  
alveolus   air sac  
anesthesia   without feeling  
vesicle   small blister  
etchant   etching  
un-   non/not  
tachy-   fast  
neo-   new  
mal-   bad  
dis-   remove  
contra-   against  
con-   with  
brady-   slow  
anti-   opposite  
trans-   through  
syn-   together  
supra-   above/over  
sub-   lesser than  
retro-   behind/back  
pre/ante-   before  
post-   after/late  
peri/o-   around  
para-   near/besides  
mes/o-   mid,among  
inter-   in midst of  
infra-   under/below  
in-   into/in/not  
im-   into/position  
ex/o-   out from  
epi-   upon/over  
endo-   within  
abrade   to wear away by friction  
abnormal tooth mobility   excessive movement of a tooth within its socket as a result of changes in the supporting tissues caused by injury or disease  
abnormal   departing from the norm  
ablation   an amputation or excision of any part of the body, or a removal of a growth or harmful substance.  
abfraction area   the part of the tooth, most commonly the cervical area, that is affected by the loss of dentin and enamel due to flexure and material fatigue.  
abfraction   a mechanism that explains the loss of dentin tissue and tooth enamel caused by flexure and ultimate material fatigue of susceptible teeth at locations away from the point of loading.  
aberrant   deviating from the usual or normal course, location, or action.  
abduction   the process of abducting; opposite of adduction  
abduct   to draw away from the median line or from a neighboring part or limb  
abdomen   the portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis  
abatement   a decrease in severity of pain or symptoms  
abrasive, finishing   the application of abrasive materials in order to eliminate surface imperfections  
dentifrice abrasion   the wearing away of the cementum and dentin of an exposed root my an abrasive  
PDR   Physician's desk reference  
RDH   Registered Dental Hygienist  
HIV   Human Immunodeficiency virus  
MPD   Maximum permissible dose  
MSDS   Material saftey data sheet  
Bi-   two/double  
Hyper-   over/excess  
Ultra-   extreme/beyond  
pan-   all around  
micro-   small/little  
macro-   large  
hypo-   under/below  
syncope   a temporary loss of consciousness resulting from an inadequate supply of blood to the brain; also known as wooning or fainting.  
abacterial   non-bacterial; free from bacteria  
abandonment   the withdrawing of a patient from treatment without giving reasonable notice or providing a competent replacement.  
ALARA   As Low As Reasonably Achievable  
dia-   complete  
Palpitation   condition of racing or increased heartbeat  
aesthesia   loss of pain sensation  
suture   stitch or staple repairing or closing a wound  
esthetics   pertaining to beauty  
dye   coloring material; may be used to indicate plaque  
fascial   pertaining to the filorous membrane on muscles  
suture   area or line where two bones unite, such as coronal suture  
palpation   use of hand or finger pressure to locate/examine  
axillary   underarm site; may be used to obtain body temp.  
a nativitate   the state of existing at birth or from infancy; denotes a congenital disability  
aa   of each  
ad-   toward/near  
abrasion   the process of weraing away either by mechanical processes or by natural processes  
semi-   half  
ANUG   acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis  
Prim/i-   first  
ab-   away from  
ab   beforehand; a notice given previouslt or a condition existing earlier  
uni-   one  
FFD   Film focus distance or focal film distance  
DDS/DMD   Doctor of dental surgery/ Doctor of dental medicine  
mon/o-   one  
CDA   Certified Dental Assistant  
tri-   three  
HVE   high volume evacuation  
quad/quat-   four  
eponyms   terms named after the person that discovered the area, disease, or instrument  
PID   Position Indicating Device  
a- an-   without  
hemi-   half  
ZOE   Zinc Oxide Eugenol  
ecto-   out side  
die   tooth or bridge pattern used in prosthodontic dentistry  
auxiliary   helping subsidiary, such as dental assistant  
facial   pertaining to the face, or front surface of incisor tooth  
ante-   infront  
de-   down from  
poly-   many  
temporal   two fan-shaped bones, one on each side of the skull, in the temporal area above each ear.  
parietal   two bones,one on each side, that make up the roof and side walls covering the brain.  
frontal   a single bone in the frontal or anterior region that makes up the forehead.  
occipital   one large,thick bone at the lower back of the head that forms the base of the skull and contains a large opening for the spinal chord passage to the brain.  
ethmoid   a spongy bone located between the eye orbits that helps form the roof and part of the anterior nasal fossa of the skull  
sphenoid   a large bone at the base of the skull, situated between the parietal and temporal bones on each side.  
zygomatic   two facial bones, one under each eye, that form and give shape to the cheekbone.  
malar   another word for the zygomatic bones  
maxilla   two facial bones, one under each eye, that unite in the center to form the upper jaw and support the maxillary teeth  
palatine   two bones, one each on the left and the right, that form the hard palate of the mouth and the nasal floor.  
nasal   two bones, one left and one right, that form the arch or bridge of the nose.  
lacrimal   two bones, one each, at the inner side or nose site of the orbital cavity.  
inferior nasal conchae   two thin, scroll-like bones that form the lower part of the interior of the nasal cavity.  
vomer   a single bone that forms the lower posterior part of the nasal septum.  
auditory ossicles   small bones in the ear  
malleus   largest of the three ossicles in the middle ear; commonly called the ear mallet.  
incus   one of three ossicles in the middle ear; commonly called the anvil  
stapes   one of three ossicles in the middle ear; commonly called the stirrup.  
hyoid   horseshoe-shaped bone lying at the base of the tongue.  
sinus   an air pocket or cavity in a bone that lightens the bone, warms the air intake, and helps form sounds.  
ethmoid sinus   located in the ethmoid bone at the side of each eye.  
sphenoid sinus   located in the sphenoid bone situated behind the eyes.  
frontal sinus   located in the frontal bone or the forehead above each eye.  
maxillary sinus   located in the maxilla; the maxillary sinus is the largest  
atrium of Highmore   maxillary sinus  
sagittal   the union line between the two parietal bones on the top of the skull.  
coronal   junction of the frontal and the parietal bones; babys "soft spot"  
lambdoid   located between the parietal bone and the upper border of the occipital bone.  
temporoparietal   located between the temporal and parietal bones  
squamous   temporoparietal  
posterior nasal spine   located in the upper arch between the nasal bone and superior maxilla.  
median palatine suture   the union between the palatine bones  
incisive suture   located in the anterior area of the pre-maxilla and palatine processes.  
nasion   a point where the nasofrontal suture is cute across by the middle plane of the skull.  
process   a projection or outgrowth of bone or tissue  
symphysis   in the center of the manible, forms the chin  
chin protuberance   symphysis that forms the chin  
alveolar   bone growth or border of the maxilla and the mandible; makes up and forms the tooth sockets  
condyloid   prosterior growth on the ramus of the madible  
cronoid   anterior growth on the ramus of the mandible that forms as an attachment position for the temoralis muscle.  
infraorbital   growth process from the zygomatic bone that articulates with the maxilla to form the lower side of the eye orbit  
mastoid   growth on the temporal bone behind the ear that is used for muscle attachment  
pterygoid   growth  
pterygoid hamulus   a hook like end that serves as a a site for muscle attachment  
styloid   small, pointed growth from the lower border of the temporal bone; serves as a bone position for attachment of some tongue muscles  
foramen   an opening or hole in the bone for nerve and vessel passage  
external auditory meatus   a large opening in the temporal bone used for the passage of auditory nerves and vessels  
magnum   opening in the occipital bone for spinal cord passage  
mandibular   located on the lingual side of the ramus of the mandible; permits nerve and vessel passage  
mental   opening situated on left and right anterior areas of the mandible; used for passage of nerve and vessels  
lingual   small opening in the center of the mental spine for nerve passage to the incisor area  
incisive   an opening in the maxilla behind the central incisors on the midline  
supraorbital   an opening in the frontal bone above the eye orbit  
infraorbital   an opening in the maxilla under the eye orbit  
palatine   anterior and posterior openings in the hard palate  
zygomaticofacial   an opening in the zygomatic bone  
periosteum   fibrous membrane covering bones  
mucoperiosteum   when the periosteum has a mucous surface  
lining mucosa   mucous membrane that lines the inner surfaces of the lips and cheeks  
masticatory mucosa   elastic type of mucous membrane that undergoes stress and pull; located around the alveolar area of the teeth and lines the hard palate  
specialized mucosa   smoother mucous tissue found on the dorsal side of the tongue  
ramus   ascending part of the mandible that arises from the curved, lower arch  
angle of the mandible   area along the lower edge of the mandible where the upward curve of the mandible forms  
sigmoid notch   s-shaped curvature between the condyle and coronoid processes  
mylohyoid ridge   bony ridge on the lingual surface of the mandible  
oblique line   slanted, bony growth ridge on the facial side of the mandible  
retromolar area   the space located to the rear of the mandibular molars  
mandibular notch   an indentation on the lower border of the mandible, near the angle where the ramus starts into its upright position  
articulates   comes together  
condyle   rests in a depression in the temporal bone  
glenoid   depression the condyle rests in  
articular eminence   forms the anterior boundary of the fossa and helps maintain the mandible in position  
meniscus   articular disc that cushions inbetween the glenoid and the articular eminence  
synovial fluid   cuchions and lubricates the joint as it works in a hinge action movement  
temporal muscle   a fan-shaped muscle on each side of the skull; elevates and lowers the jaw and can draw the mandible backward  
masseter muscle   the muscle that closes the mouth; the principal mastication muscle  
internal pterygoid muscle   (wing-shapped)muscle that raises the mandible to close the jaw  
external pterygoid muscle   muscle that opens the jaw and thrusts the mandible forward; assists with lateral movement  
orbicularis oris muscle   "kissing muscle" a circular muscle surrounding the mouth that compacts, compresses, and protrudes the lips  
buccinator muscle   principal cheek muscle; compresses the cheek, expels air through the lips, and aids in food mastication  
mentalis muscle   muscle of the chin (mental) that moces the chin tissue and raises or lowers the lower lip  
trigeminal nerve   (three branches) dental and face nerve, involved in teeth and facial sensation and tongue movement  
ganglion   mass of nerves  
ophthalmic nerve   a sensory nerve division with three branches  
lactimal nerve branch   provides sensation for the lactimal gland and eye conjunctiva  
frontal nerve branch   provides sensation for the forehead, scalp, upper eyelid, and nasal root  
nasociliary nerve branch   provides sensation for nose, eye, and eyebrow  
maxillary nerve   a sensory division of the trigeminal nerve, with several branches  
anterior palatine nerve branch   provides sensation for the hard palate, and mucous membrane for molars and premolar teeth  
periosteum   mucous membrane for molar and premolar teeth  
middle palatine nerve branch   provides sensation for the soft palate, the uvula (hangy ball thing), and the upper or soft part of the palate  
posterior palatine nerve branch   provides sensation for the tonsils and the soft palate  
nasoplaltine nerve branch   provides sensation for the mose and the palate  
infraorbital nerve branch   subdivides into three parts: anterior, middle, and posterior  
anterior part of the infraorbital nerve branch   provides sensation to maxillary centrals, laterals, and canines  
middle part of the infraorbital nerve branch   procides sensation to the maxillary premolars and the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molar  
posterior part of the infraorbital nerve branch   provides sensation to the maxillary second and third molar, and to the remaining roots of the maxillary first molar  
zygomatic nerve branch   prvides sensation to the lacimal and upper cheek area  
sphenopalatine nerve branch   sensory nerve ending for the maxillary anterior mucosal and palatine tissues  
mandibular nerve   mexed nerve division that registers sensation and causes movement  
inferior alveolar nerve branch   provides sensation to the mandibular teeth  
mylohyoid nerve branch   provides sensation to some muscles in the floor of the mouth  
mental nerve branch   provides sensation to the skin of chin and the lower lip  
incisive nerve branch   provides sensation to the anterior teeth and alveoli  
lingual nerve branch   provides some sensation to the tongue and causes some movement  
buccal nerve branch   provides sensation to the buccal gingiva and mucosa  
vascular   small vessels  
artery   carries blood away from the heart  
vein   takes blood to the heart  
carotid artery   rises from the aorta right and left and divides in the neck to form two arteries  
internal carotid artery   blood supply to the brain and eyes  
external carotid artery   branches to the throat, face, tongue, and ears  
infraorbital branch of the external carotid artery   provides blood to the maxillary anterior teeth  
inferior alveolar branch of the external carotid artery   provides blood to the mandibular teeth  
facial branch of the external carotid artery   provides blood the the face, tonsils, palate, and submandibular gland  
lingual branch of the external carotid artery   divides into branches to serve the tongue, tonsil, soft palate, and throat  
maxillary branch of the external carotid artery   provides blood to the maxillary teeth  
jugular vein   transports blood from the head to the heart; drains to the internal jugular through three divisions  
facial division of the jugular vein   carries blood from the face surfaces  
maxillary division of the jugular vein   carries blood from the maxillary region  
pterygoid venus plexus division of the jugular vein   (network) collects the blood supply from the head  
capillaries   tiny blood vessels that help to transport blood from the veins to the arteries  
expectorate   spit  
serum   watery fluid  
mucin   sticky, slimy secretion that forms musus  
enzymes   body produced chemicals(to digest food)  
parotid gland   the largest salivary gland, located near the ear; produces serus salica, which empties into the mouth near the maxillary second molar throught the Stenson's duct(to lead)  
submandibular gland   a smaller gland located on the lower side of the face that secretes mucin and serus fluids with enzymes; empties through the Whartons's, or submandibular, duct openings under the tongue on each side of the lingual fremum  
sublingual gland   smallest major salivary gland, situated in the floor of the mouth; secretes mucin through multiple ducts; many other small glands are nearby, functioning to keep mouth tissues moist  
lymph   vessels that transport lymph fluids of plasma, water, and waste products  
lymph capillaries   tiny vessels or tubes that carry lymph fluid  
lymph node   a mass of lymph cells forming a unit of lymphatic tissue that are named after the formation site  
axillary   (pertaining to the armpit) lymph nodes located under the armpit  
cervical   (pertaining to the neck) lymph nodes found in the neck  
inguinal   (pertaining to the groin) lymph nodes found in the abdomen  
tonsil   a lymphatic tissue mass found in the posterior of the throat between the anterior and posterior fauces and on the back of the tongue; tonsils act as filters, aid in the production of disease-fighting immune responses, and may help immunity  
adenoid   lymphatic tissue found in the nasopharynx area; may provide protection similar to tonsils  
antigens   foreign, pathogenic substances intoduced into or produced by the body  
antibody   protein material, manufactured by the body, that destroys antigens; antibodies are the basis fro the immune response  
lymphocytes   lymph cells that assist in body defenses; two types  
B-lymphocytes   produce antibodies to destroy antigens  
T-lymphocytes   also called T-cells; produced in the thymus; assist with the immune system to destroy foreign cells and pathogens  
immunoglobulin   plasma-made proteins, produced in lymph tissue, that are capable of acting as antibodies in the immune response  
interferon   proteins produced by cells exposed to viruses; help to provide immunity to unaffected cells  
phagocytes   white blood cells that ingest and destroy antigens in a process  
phagocytosis   process of white blood cells ingesting and destroying antigens  
macrophages (type of phagocyte)   large phagocyte cells that ingest antigens and inflammatory bodies  
microphanges (Type of phagocyte)   neutophilic cells that ingest smaller matter, such as bacteria  
superior oris   upper lip  
inferium oris   lower lip  
labial commissure   area at the corners of the mouth where the lips meet  
vermilion border   area where the pink-red lip tissue meets the facial skin  
philtrum   median groove in the center external sirface of the upper lip  
caruncle   small, fleshy mucous tissue elevations under the tongue  
frenum   a triangular peice of tissue  
frena   plural of frenum  
labial frenum(2)   tissue that attaches the inside of the lip to the mucous membrane in the anterior of the oral cavity. they occur in both the maxillary and the mandibular arches  
lingual frenum(1)   attaches the lower side of the tongue to the floor membrane  
ankyloglossia   if the lingual frenum is too short (tongue tied)  
buccal frenum(2)   attaches the inside of the cheek to the oral cavity in the maxillary first molar area. left and right sides  
deglutition   swallowing  
median sulcus   groove, depression (divides the top of the tongue into two parts)  
papillae   tissue growth (taste buds)  
dorsal   (back) back surface of the tongue  
circumvallate   the largest, V-shaped papillae, situated on the dorsal aspect of the tongue; sense bitter tastes  
filiform   the smallest, hair-like papillae covering the entire dorsal aspect of the tongue; do not sense taste  
fungiform   small, dark-red papillae on the middle and anterior dorsal surface and along the sides of the tongue; sense sweet, sour, and salty tastes  
foliate   on the posterior lateral borders of the tongue, and can be seen if the tongue is grasped with gauze and extended; sense sour tastes  
palate   or roof of the mouth (hard palate or soft palate)  
hard palate   composed of the palatine processes of the maxillae bones; covered with mucous membrane  
rugae   irregular folds or bumps on the surface of the hard palate  
incisive papilla   tissue growth situated at the anterior portion of the palate behind the maxillary centrals; the site for infiltration injection of local anesthesia  
palatine raphe   (ridge between the union of two halves) white streak in the middle of the palate  
soft palate   flexible protion of the palate; area where the gag reflex is present  
uvula   tissue structure hanging from the palate in the posterior of the oral cavity  
vestibule   open gum area between the teeth and the cheek  
fauces   constricted opening or passage leading from the mouth to the oral pharynx, bound by the soft palate, the base of tongue, and the palatine arches. the fauces have two pillars  
glossopalatine arch   anterior pillars  
pharyngopalatine   posterior pillars  
prosthodontist   replaces missing teeth with artificial appliances such as a full mouth denture or partial bridgework  
periodontist   treats diseases of periodontal (gingiva and supporting) tissues  
orthodontist   corrects malocclusion and improper jaw alignment  
pediatric dentist   preforms dental procedures for children; also called pedodontist  
endodontist   treats the diseased pulp and periradicular structures  
oral and maxillofacial surgeon   performs surgical treatment of the teeth, jaws, and related areas  
public health dentist   works on causes and prevention of common dental diseases and promotes dental health to the communtiy or general population  
oral pathologist   studies the nature, diagnosis, and control of oral disease  
oral and maxillofacial radiologist   is concerned with the production and interpretation of radiant energy images or data regarding the oral and maxillofacial regions  
forensic dentist   discovers and uses pathological evidence for legal proceedings; forensic dentistry is not yet established as a recognized specialty but is organized and realted to a particular type of dental care  
ADA   american dental association  
EFDA   expanded function dental auxiliary  
ADHP   advances dental hygiene practitioner  
ADHA   American dental hygienist's association  
dental assistant   aids the dentist in diagnosis, treatment, and dental care  
DANB   dental assisting national board  
RHS   radiation health and saftey  
COA   certified orthodontic assistant  
CDPMA   certified dental practice management assistant  
ADAA   american dental assistants association  
dental laboratory technician   performs dental lab procedures under written orders from a licensed dentist  
CDT   certified dental technician  
NADL   National association of dental laboratories  
denturist   specializes in the construction of dentures and may practice only in those states that recognize, license, and permit this profession  
shaft or handle   used to grasp the instrument; supplied in various weights, diameters, and surfaces that may be smooth or serrated  
shank   connects the handle to the working end; sometimes called the unstrument neck  
working end   also called blade or nib; rounded end is the toe, pointed end is the tip  
armamentarium   set up used for most procedures  
mouth mirror   used for reflection, retraction, and ciual observation  
explorer   a sharp, flexible, pointed instrument used to detect caries and calculus, to explore restorations, surfaces and furcations, to make location marks, and to pick up conton points or materials;  
cotton forceps   tweezer-like pinchers used to transport materials to or from the mouth; also called dressing pliers; available with or without a serrated tip  
periodontal probe   a longer pointed instrument with measured marks on the tip; used to assess depth of tissue pockets; available with a round or flat blade and may be color-coded to help determine measurements  
expro   double- ended instrument with a diagnosing probe tip at one end and an explorer tip at the other end  
pen-probe   and double-ended instrument with a probe-marking tip on one end and a pen on the opposite end  
scaler   thin-bladed hand instrument with pointed tip and two cutting edges; used to scale(scrape off) hard deposits from teeth  
sickle scaler   sharp blade in the shape of a sickle; used to remove calculus from tooth surfaces  
curette   round-tipped thin blade with a longer neck and two cutting edges; used to remove subgingival deposits  
implant scaler/curette   non-metalic, resin-tipped instrument, designed to remoce deposits around titanium implant abutments  
periodontal knife   hand instrument with flat-bladed incision tip of various shapes and angles; used to remove or recontour soft tissue.  
scalpel   handle for attachment of blades of assorted sizes and shapes; used to incise(cut into) or remove tissue; also used in specialized dental procedures  
excavator   hand instrument with long-necked, cup-like, sharp-edged blades; used to remove soft, decayed tissue from preparations  
gingival margin trimmer   hand instrument with long, slender, curved, flat blade; used to break away enamel margins during tooth preparations  
hoe   smaller bladed instrument with a tip resembling a farm hoe; used to break or pull away enamel tissue during preparations  
hatchet   hand instument with a sharp-edge, hatchet-like tip; used to remove hard tissue  
chisel   hand instument with cutting edge that is used to cut away enamel tissue  
cleoid/discoid carver   double-ended, long-necked carving instrument with a pointed tip on one end and a disc-shaped blade on the other end; used to carve anatomy features in newly places restorations, or can be used to remove decay and tooth tissue during cavity prepertaions  
carver   thin-bladed hand instrument used to remove decay or carve newly placed restorative material; blade faces come in various shapes; a popular type is the Hollenback  
plastic filling instrument(PFI)   hand instrument with a flat blade; used to carry, transfer, and to pack materials, or to carve restorative materials  
condenser   hand instrument with a thick, rounded or ocal shaped, flat head that is sometimes serrated. It is used to pack or condense restoratice material into the cavity preparation  
burnisher   hand instrument with a smooth, rounded head that comes in various shapes; used to smooth out restorative material or other metal surfaces, such as a matrix strip  
beaver-tail burnisher   a burnisher with a beaver tail-shaped blade extending from the round nip or tip; used to smoothe and carve restorative material while in the plastic, pliable shape, and to apply medication such as dycal to a cavity preparation  
amalgam carrier   hand instrument with holding cylinder for the transfer of amalgam material while in a plastic form; has a spring lever pusher to expel the material into the preparation  
matrix holder, matrix strip, wedge   holder device used to maintain artificial wall around the tooth preparation. A wooden or resin triangular wedge is used to hold the strip in place and prevent the material from leaking  
file   hand instrument with a flat blade with serrated edging; used to smoothe off and contour restorations or hard surfaces  
high-volume evacuator(HVE)   curved, metal or resin, beveled tip with a large hole; inserted into a high-evacuation tube system handle with off/on and intensity controls; used for gross removal of fluids and debris from the mouth  
saliva ejector tip   smaller suction tip that is inserted into the evacuation tubing from the dental unit; used for steady,constant fluid remocal from the oral cavity  
cuspidor   basin  
straight handpeice (SHP)   straight handpeice with no head; instruments are inserted directly into opening and held in place by engaging the manual or automatic tightening device in the unit's handpeice  
contra-angle handpeice (CAHP)   handpeice with an obtuse angled head; is inserted into the power unit's straight handpeice and is used to gain access to posterior teeth and difficult areas  
right-angle handpeice (RAHP)   handpeice with its head set at a 90-degree angle is inserted and coonects into the power unit's handpeice; employed in general use throughout the oral cavity  
prophy angle handpeice (PHP)   small prophylaxis handpeice rotary angle with a 90-degree angle head; has a limited opening in the working end for polishing cups or brush placement  
fiber optic handpeice   specific slow- or high-speed handpiece that supplies a light source to the operative site for improved vision  
rheostat   a food petal or lever that is used to regulate the speed of the handpeice  
air abrasion   air-powered handpeice delivering abrasive aluminum oxide powder or sodium bicarbonate under force to clean or prepare tooth surfaces or remove some carious tissue  
ultrasonic handpiece   high-speed vibration scaling tips used for scaling and curettage purposes, sometimes called ultrasonic scaler  
curing light handpiece   hand-held device that focuses a light beam to cure or "set" specified materials  
intraoral camera   handpeice with a small camera situated in the head; used to transmit various views of the oral setting  
electrosurgery handpiece   combination of assorted metal tips that fit into a probe handle; these tips pass electrical currents that incise and coagulate the blood in a surgical procedure  
laser handpiece   photon handpiece that emits a precise light-energy wavelenght that is concentrated to preform specialized tasks; used in teeth whitening  
caries detection scanner   a non-invasive laser scan that detects early decay in occlusal areas  
implant drilling unit   lighted, digitally control drilling handpiece with sterile irrigation; used to smooth alveolar bone, drill operatice sites, and install implants  
shank for a handpiece   the end of the bur that is inserted into the handpiece  
neck for a handpiece   connecting area between the shank and the working end or head of the bur  
working end or head for a handpiece   end that cuts tissue or works on the tooth or material involved  
dentated bur   dented, depressed  
truncated bur   cut part off, lop off  
friction-grip bur   smooth-ended bur, held in the handpiece by the friction grip chunk  
latch-type bur   has grooved inserion bur end that hooks into the head of an RA handpiece  
straight handpiece   has a smooth, extended shaft that fits directly into the straight handpiece  
mandrel   a slim, metal holding device that fits into slow hand pieces and is used to smooth and cut  
Joe Dandy   a thick, carborundum disc  
stone, wheel, discs   abrasive or chemically treated discs, wheels, cups, and points with carious shapes that can be mounted permanently or glued on a shaft or placed on mandrels  
grit   used for smoothing at chairside or in the lab  
diamond rotary instruments   commonly called burs or points; used to cut, smooth, and reduce tissues; they follow the same numbering pattern and color coding as steel burs  
bur block   a tray device used to hold the small rotary instuments during use at the chair and while being sterilized; may be metallic or resin and have or not have a cover  
operatory   small treatment room equipped with dental appliances  
dental chair   chair appliance, usually electrically powered, that raises, lowers, and tilts to provide easy access and proper vision  
operatory light   viewing light for patient care; may be wall-mounted, on a floor stand, lowered from the ceiling, or attached to the chair unit  
stools   movable seats for the dental personnel  
dental unit   upright, stationary, or movable, table-style working appliance that provides handpiece power, aspiration, water, and air  
cabinets   mobile, floor, or wall-mounted storage cabinets with drawer space for supplies and equipment  
radiographic units   various configurations  
diagnostic or auxiliary units   include perio-pocket detectors, newly developed electronic diagnostic devices used to assist with a patient survey  
disease   pathological condition of the body, abnormal condition  
symptoms   perceptible change in the body or body fuctions  
objective symptoms (signs)   evidence observed by someone else  
endema   swelling  
subjective symptoms   are evidence of a disease as reported by the patient  
odontalgia   toothache  
syndrome   (running together) an assortment or signs and symptoms grouped together  
pathology   study of disease  
etiology   cause of the disease  
diagnosis   denoting name of disease  
prognosis   a prediction about the course of the disease  
acute   (sharp, severe) describes immediate sumptoms such as high fever and pain or distress  
chronic   (not acute, drawn out) describes a condition present over a long time, often without an endpoint, such as chronic fatigue and anemia  
remission   (lessening or abating) temporary or permanent cessation  
epidemic   (among people or widespread) a condition prevalent over a wide population, such as many cases of flu or typhoid in an area  
pandemic   (all people involved) a disease that is more widespread than an epidemic, occurring over a large geographical area and population someimes worldwide  
endemic   (in people) disease(s) occurring continuously in the same population or locality  
exogenous   (produced outside)refers to causes outside the body such as illnesses arising from trauma  
endogenous   (arising from within the cell or organism) refers to causes arising from within the body, such as infections, tumors, and congenital and metabolic abnormalities  
congenital   (present from birth) refers to conditions inherited from parents, such as cystic fibrosis  
degenerative   (breaking down) refers to conditions resulting from natural aging of the body, such as arthritis  
opportunistic   (taking advantage of) refers to diseases or infection occurring when body resistance is lowered, such as with fungal, bacterial, or viral infections  
nosocomial   (disease in caregiving) refers to diseases passed on from patient to patient in a health care setting, such as staphylococcal bacterial infections  
pathogenic   microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens  
bacteria   one-celled, plant-like microorganisms lacking chlorophyll  
aerobic   designates bacteria that require oxygen to live  
facultative aerobes   bacteria that can live in the presence of oxygen but do not require it  
obligate or strict anaerobes   bacteria that cannot live in the presence of oxygen  
flagella   (whips) small, whip-like hairs that provide movement for some bacteria  
spore   thick walled reproductive cell  
endospore   for a resting stage when unfavorable conditions exist  
viruses   tiny parasitic organisms that cause diseases such as HIV  
Rickettsia   smaller than bacteria but bigger than viruses, spread by lice or ticks  
vectors   carriers that transmit diseases  
filamentous   molds  
unicellular   yeasts  
protozoa   must live upon another organism called the host, cause malaria  
saprophytes   organisms living on decaying or dead organic matter such as tetanus bacillus (lock jaw)  
nematodes   small parasitic worms such as as threadworms  
commensal   (living together) microbes that live together on a host without harming it, such as mouth flora  
bloodborne pathogens   disease-producing microbes that are present in human blood  
droplet infection   airborne infection in which pathogens discharged from the mouth or nose by coughing or sneezing are carried through the air and settle on objects  
indirect infection   infection resulting from improper handling of materials  
fomes   inanimate substances that absorb and transmit infection, such as doorknobs and bedding  
contact infection   infection that is passed directly through intimate relationships- contact with saliva, blood, or mucous membranes  
parenteral entry   (injection) refers to piercing of the skin or mucous membrane; also called needle-stick  
carrier infection   exchange of disease by direct or indirect contact with an infected human or animal  
vector-borne infection   an infection that is transmitted by an organism such as a fly or mosquito  
food, soil, or water infection   infection passed along by microbes present in these media  
biofilm   containing bacteria cells that adhere to moist surfaces and form a protective slime that can carry pathogens or nematodes.  
immunity   resistance to organisms due to previous exposure  
virulence   (power) the number or concentration of pathological organisms  
natural immunity   inherited and permanent  
natural acquired immunity   obtained when a person is infected by a disease, produces antibodies, and then recovers from that disease  
artificial acquired immunity   obtained from inoculation or vaccination against a disease  
passive acquired immunity   results from reciving antibodies from another source, such as breast milk, or from injections of gamma globulin, antitoxins, or immune serum  
passive natural immunity   passes from mother to fetus congenitally or through antibodies in breast milk  
immunocompromised   having a weakened immune system, resulting from drugs, irradiation, disease such as AIDS, or malnutrition  
inoculation   injection of microorganisms, serum, or toxin into the body  
vaccination   inoculation with weakened or dead microbes  
antigen   substance that induces the body to form antibodies  
antibody   protein substance produced by the body in response to an antigen  
vaccine   solution of killed or weakened infectious agents injected to produce immunity  
autogenous vaccine   vaccine produced from a culture of bacteria taken from the patient who will receive the vaccine  
attenuated   diluted or reduced virulence of pathogenic microbes  
asepsis   free from germs  
sanitation   application of methods to promote a favorable germ-free state  
disinfection   application of chemicals to kill, reduce, or eliminate germs  
sterilization   the process of destroying all microorganisms  
autoclave   apparatus for sterilization by steam pressure  
"flash" autoclave   smaller autoclave with higher temperature setting to lessen time  
dry heat sterilization   oven apparatus used for a hot air bake at high temperature for a longer period of time  
chemical vapor   autoclave method using chemical vapor under pressure in place of water  
molten metal ir glass bead heat   devices holding superheated molten metal or small glass beads  
germicidal gas   gas chamber apparatus for items that cannot withstand heat; requires long exposure and ventilation time before use  
chemical agents   liquids containing chemicals that kill microbes and spores and require longer immersion time. some chemicals may be either disinfectants and/or sterilizers  
indicator   strips or commercial spore vials; placed in or on wrapped items during the sterilization susle to indicate the effectiveness of the sterilizing process  
disinfection   the application of chemicals to kill, reduce, or eliminate germs  
disinfectant   chemical that kills many microbes, but not spore-forming bacteria  
antiseptic   usually a diluted disinfectant that inhibits growth of microbes  
bacteriostatic   inhibiting or retarding bacterial growth  
germicide   substance that destroys some germs  
holding solution   disinfectant solution  
biodegradable   chemical or metabolic material that breaks down protein material  
ultrasonic cleaner   mechanical apparatus with a reservoir to contain a solution that cavitates  
implodes   bursts inwardly or bubbles off debris  
barrier techniques   drapes, covers, plastic instrument sleeves, and the like, to prevent contamination and help protect patients  
SOP   standard operating procedures for sanitation of operators and patients, including the training and use of proper handling and storing of dental equipment  
standard precautions   treating each case as if the patient has a serious disease including handling and sterilizing with each new use to precent contamination; called maintaining a sterile field  
proper disposal techniques   disposing of all contaminated items in a marked biohazard bag; laundry and other materials used in patient should be considered contaminated by splatter or aerosol matter  
sharps disposal unit   container used for collection and disposal of needles, broken glass, and sharp items  
biohazard container   labeled container for items contaminated with body fluids or life-threatening contaminates  
hazardous waste container   receptacle for used, unsanitary items  
saturate-wipe-saturate   disinfection cleaning of operative area  
OSHA   occupational saftey and health administration: issues and enforcesrestrictions and guidelines for infection control  
CDC   centers for disease control and prevention: sets regulations and issues suggestions for infection control  
EPA   Enviromental protection agency: regulates and approves materials, equipment, medical devices, and chemicals used in dental practices  
FDA   food and drug administration: regulates and approves marketing products and solutions used in infection control  
OSAP   organization for safety and asepsis procedures: national organization of health professionals; studies and makes suggestions for regulations and guidelines for infection control  
radiant   energy waves that are produced, charged, and emitted from a common center in the dental radiation tube  
x-ray tube   produces x-rays (Vacuum tube)  
cathode   (negative pole) electrode in the vacuum tube that serves as the electron source  
filament   (fine thread) tungsten coil in the cathode focusing cup that generates the electrons  
anode   (positive pole) the target for the electron barrage to convert the electron force into photons  
focal spot   target area where rays are projected to make the primary beam, or central beam; the smaller focal spot produces a better image  
collimator   (to align) a device used to regulate the beam's exit window of the tube to absorb weak radiation  
inherent filtration   all filtration devices that filter weak, longer-wavelength x-rays  
added filtration   filtration placed outside the tube head to meet safety standards  
total filtration   sum of inherent and added filtration, expressed in mm of aluminum equivalent  
milliampere control   and increase in milliamperage increases the amount of electrons available and darkens the radiograph  
kilovolt power   controls the force that attracts the electrons to the anode; helps to determine the penetrating power and the quality/energy of the radiation rays  
exposure time   duration of the intercal during which current will pass through the x-ray tube  
target-film distance   distance of the film surface from the source of radiation  
target-object distance   distance between the anode target and the object to be radiographed  
film speed   A to F speed; faster film requires less radiation exposure time for the patient  
primary radiation   central ray of radiation emitting from the tube head and PID  
secondary radiation   radiation given off from other matter that is exposed to the primary beam  
scattered radiation   radiation deflected from its path during its passage through matter; may be deflected or defused in all directions, becoming attenuated (weakened) or another form of secondary radiation  
stray radiation   also called leakage, any radiation other than the useful beam produced from the tube head  
remnant radiation   radiation rays that reach the film target after passing through the subject part being radiographed  
sensitivity   ability of x-rays to penetrate and possibly ionize  
cumulative effect   long-term outcome of radiation  
latent period   the time interval between the exposure and the effect or its detection  
mutation effect   abnormal growth or development as a result of radiation causing a genetic change  
acute radiation exposure   radiation occurring from a massice, short-term ionizing dose, such as accidental exposure or explosion of radiation material  
chronic radiation exposure   accumulated radiation effects from continual or frequent small exposures abosrbed over a period of time  
roentgen (R)   the basic unit of exposure to radiation  
rad (radiation absorbed dose)   the unit of absorbed radiation dose equal to 100 ergs per gram of tissue  
rem (roentgen equivalent measure)   the unit of ionizing radiation needed to produce the same biological effect as one roentgen of radiation  
erythema dose   (redness)radiation overdose that produces temporary redness of the skin  
dosimeter   (giving measure) radiation-monitoring device with ionizing chamber or a device to indicate exposure and measure accumulated doses of radiation  
lead apron/thyrocervical collar   patient apparel with lead protection for genetic cells in the torso and the thyroid glands in the cervical area  
lead barriers, shields   devices used by operators to block out scattered radiation  
phantom   practice manikin containing tooth and head structures to imitate actual condition  
periapical film packet   used for the intraoral periapical view of the entire tooth or teeth in given area along with adjacent tissues and oral structures  
bitewing film packet   film used to record the crown and interproximal views of both arches while in occlusion  
occlusal film packet   film that may be used intraorally or extraorally to expose large areas  
extraoral films   radiographs exposed outside the oral cavity  
cephalometric   (head, measure) also called headplates  
cephalostat   a device used to stabilize the patient's head in a plane parallel to the film and at right angles to the contral ray of the x-ray beam. used for large radiographs of the head  
panoramic radiograph   a special radiograph producing the entire dentition with surrounding structures on one film  
intensifying screen   a layer of fluorescent crystals or calcium tunstate within the cassette that gives off a bluish light when exposed to radiation  
contrast   variations in shades from black to white  
density   amount of film blackening associated with the percentage of light transmitted through a film  
detail   point-to-point delineation or veiw of tiny structures in radiograph image  
definition   outline sharpness and clarity of image exhibited on a radiograph  
radiolucent   (ray, shine) describes a radiograph that appears dark; or the ability of a substance to permit passage of x-rays, thereby cause the radiographic film to darken  
radiopaque   (ray, dark) the portion of the radiograph that appears light, or the ability of a substance to resist x-ray penetration, thereby causing a light area on the film  
bisecting angle   the central beam in directly perpendicular with an imagaginary bisecting line of the angle formed by the plane of the film and the long axis of the tooth  
paralleling   the film packet is placed parallel to the long axis of the tooth and at a right angle to the central beam  
CCD (charged coupled device)   a solid-state sensor that may or may not be wired to the computer work station, barrier-wrapped and inserted into a positioning device for placement and exposure in the mouth  
PSP (photostimulable phosphor device)   an indirect sensor storage plare that absorbs radiation to complete a latent image  
indirect dental radiography digital image   x-ray image already processed by the usual method, scanned by an adapter in the database; or a digital camera can racord a picture of the film and transfer the image to the database  
electronic image processing   operator's manipulation of the digital image, consisting of contrast, brightness, image reversal,embossing, and grayness to enhance, measure, compare, or obtain information  
digital subtraction radiography   digital comparison of the image to a previous radiatiograph, subtracting all that is the same and analyzing or comparing the remainder  
sagittal plane   also called midsaggital plane; imaginary vertical line bisecting the face into a right half and left half  
ala tragus line   imaginary line from the ala(wing) of the nose to the tragus(skin projection anterior to acoustic meatus) center of the ear  
horizontal angulation   direction of the central x-ray beam in a horizontal plane  
vertical angulation   direction of the central x-ray beam in an up or down position  
negative angulation   angulation achieved by positioning the PID upward  
positive angulation   angulation achieved by positioning the PID downward  
zero angulation   angulation achieved by positioning the PID parallel with the floor  
film-holding instrument   device used to place and retain the film during exposure  
blue aming ring   anterior  
yellow aming ring   posterior  
red aming ring   bitewinn  
green aming ring   endodontic  
biteblock   a device inserted between the teeth to hold the film during exposure  
bite loop/tab   paper tab or a celluloid circle placed around periapical film  
film safe container   a lead-lined container used to hold exposed films until processing; protects the film from exposure to scattered or secondary rays during exposure of films  
full mouth survey (FMX)   multiple exposures of the oral cavity showing crown and root area in a series of radiographic veiws  
bitewing survery (BWX)   two or four film exposures of posterior veiw to obserce the crowns of maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth  
edentulous survey   (without teeth) radiographic survey of a patient without teeth  
radiograph processing   is a procedure for bringing out the latent image on a film and making the exposure permanent  
developing   chemical process using the chemical elon to bring out contrast and another chemical, hydroquinone, to show contrast in film  
accelerator   soulution used to swell the film emulsion during the processing  
activator   solution used to aid other chemicals in the processing activity  
replenisher soulution   super-concentrated developing solution that is added to the developing tank to restore fluid levels  
underdeveloping   insufficient processing with weak chemicals or incorrect time or temperature that results in light, difficult-to-veiw films  
overdeveloping   overprocessing that results in radiographs that are too dark and difficult to interpret  
rinsing   water bath used to remove chemical liquids from films during solution exchanges  
fixing   chemical process that stops the developer action and "fixes" the image, making it permanently visible  
hyopsulfite or hyposulfite of sodium   chemical that removes exposed and unexposed silver grains from the film  
drying   procedure to dry dulms after the chemical and water baths  
safelight   special light or filtered light that can remain during the developing procedure  
duplicating radiograph   procedure utilizing a cabinet-like unit and spacial duplicating films to make a duplicate exposure of a processed radipgraph for purposes of insurance, referral, or records  
mounting   (carding) a procedure to arrange the processed radiographs in a cardboard, plastic, or stiff carrier to present a veiw of the oral cavity  
horizontal window   preset window in the mount, used to place posterior films  
veritcal window   preset window in the mount, used for placement of anterior films  
bitewing window   (interproximal window) used to place bitewing exposures  
identification dot   preset pressed or raised area on the surface of the film  
veiw box   a box or wall-mounted frame with fluorescent lights behind a frosted glass plate; used to veiw x-rays  
elongation   image of the tooth structure appearing longer than the actual size; caused by indufficient vertical angulation  
foreshortening   tooth structures appearing shorter than their actual anatomical size; caused by excessive vertical angulation  
overlapping   distortion of the film showing an overlap of the crowns of adjacent teeth superimposed on neighboring teeth; caused by improper horizontal angulation  
cone cutting   improper placement of the central beam, which produces a blank area or unexposed area on the film surface caused by lack of exposure to radiation  
reticulation   crackling of film emulsion caused by wide temperature differences between processing solutions (stained glass effect)  
fog   darkening of or blemish on film that may be caused by old film, old or contaminated solutions, faulty safelight, scattered radiation, or improper storage of films  
penumbra   poor definition or fuzzy outline of forms, caused by movement  
herringbone effect   fish-bone effect on the film surface resulting from improper placement of the film  
prosthesis   is replacement for a missing body part  
fixed appliance   one that is placed in the mouth and is not intended for removal  
removable appliance   one that is placed in and out of the mouth at the patient's will  
implantology   the science of dental implants  
noble metals   the valuable alloys; gold, palladium, and platinum  
base metals   chromium-cobalt, or chromium nickel, which may be used alone or in a mixture with noble alloys  
parcelain   (hard, translucent ceramic wear) shells, veneer covers, or facing fused to the surface of a metal crown to give the appearance of natural tooth surface  
PFM   porcelain fused to metal  
composite   resin material used for tooth-colored replacement  
acrylic   synthetic resin material used in fabrication of appliance parts, as coverings for the metal frameworks, or as natural tissue replacement  
ceramic   a hard brittle material produced from non-metallic substances fired at high temperatures; supplied in block shape for milling into crown and tooth forms  
titanium   corrosion-resistant, lightweight, strong bio-compatible metal used in dental implants and posts  
hardness   ability of a material to withstand penetration  
tensile strength   capability of a material to be stretched  
elasticity   ability of a material to be stretched and then resume its original shape  
ductility   ability of a material to be drawn or hammered out, as into a fine wire, without breaking  
malleability   ability of a material to be pressed or hammered out into various forms and shapes  
elongation   ability of a material to stretch before permanent deformation begins  
inlay   a solid casted or milled restoration involving some occlusal and proximal surfaces that is cemented into a tooth preparation  
onlay   a solid casted or milled restoration that covers some occlusal tooth cusp and side wall area that is cemented onto the prepared site  
crown   a fabricated, tooth-shaped cover replacement for a missing crown area that is cemented onto the remaining prepared crown surfaces  
full crown   cast metal, tooth-shaped cover that replaces the entire crown area  
jacket crown   thin, preformed, metal shield used to cover a large area of anterior crowns  
dental crown   full crown cover with dowel pin extending into the root canal of a pulpless tooth, usually positioned on anterior teeth  
three-quarter crown   similar to full crown, covering all of the crown except the facial surface of the tooth that remains intact  
porcelain-fused-to-gold (PFM)   crown that has a complete capping of metal base with fused porcelain  
direct veneer   placed and cured directly on the tooth surface to build up the area or replace missing tooth structure  
indirect veneer   tooth material is prepared in the lab and later cemented onto the tooth structure  
bridge   is a prosthesis used to replace one or more teeth  
fixed bridge   cemented into the oral cavity and not removed by the patient  
maryland bridge   replaces anterior or posterior tooth and is cemented directly to the adjacent or abutting teeth (resin-bonded bridge)  
cantilever bridge   bridge with unsupported end, usually saddled  
pontic   artificial tooth part of the bridge that replaces the missing tooth and restores function to the bite  
abutment   natural tooth or teeth that are prepared to hold or support the retaining part of the bridgework in position  
adjacent   (nearby or adjoining) teeth: may be included in units if they are involved in the bridge area  
complete denture   (removable appliance composed of artificial teeth set in an acrylic base) full denture designed to replace the entire dentition of an upper or lower arch  
partial denture   removable appliance, usually composed of framework, artificial teeth, and acrylic material; replaces one or more teeth in an arch  
immediate denture   denture prosthesis that is placed into the mouth at the time the natural teeth are surgically removed  
overdenture   prosthetic denture that is prepared to fit and be secured upon implant posts or prepared retained roots  
framework   metal skeleton or spine onto which a removable prosthesis is constructed  
saddle   the part of the removable prothesis that strides or saddles the gingival crest; used to balance the prosthesis, and serves as a base for placement of artificial teeth  
rests   small extensions of removable prosthesis made to fit or sit atop the adjoinging teeth  
clasp   extension of partial framework that grasps the adjoinging teeth to provide support and retention of the prosthesis  
retainer   the part of the appliance that joings with the abutting, natural tooth to support the appliance, like the pillar holding the span of a bridge over water  
connector   (device used to unite or attach two or more parts together) used to connect quadreants of a partial denture or connect and support an overdenture  
stress breaker   a connector applied in stress-bearing areas to provide a safe area for breakage  
artificial teeth   anatomical sustitutes for natural teeth; made of porcelain or acrylic material in various shades and shapes, called molds  
denture base   acrylic part of the denture prosthesis that substitutes for the gingival tissue  
flange (flanj)   projecting rim or lower edge of prosthesis  
post dam   posterior edge of the maxillary denture; helps to maintain the denture and suction  
elastomeric   having properties similar to rubber  
hydrocolloid   (hydro-water; colloid-suspension of material) an agar-like material that can change from one form to another  
reversible hydrocolloid   impression material that can change from a solid or gel state to a liquid form and back again  
thermoplastic   (thermo-heat; plastic-moveable) quality of a material that changes from a rigid to plastic or movable form as a result of application of heat  
irreversible hydrocolloid   quality that, once chamically set or in gel form, cannot be reversed or used again  
imbibition   swelling from absorption of water  
rubber bases   common impression materials  
extruder gun   calibrated mixing dispenser  
catalyst   substance that speeds up a chemical reaction  
compound   a non-elastic impression material that may be used in edentulous impressions  
edentulous   without teeth  
alveolectomy   surgical removal of alveolar bone crests, may be required to provide smooth alveolar ridge for denture seating  
alveoplasty   surgical reshaping or contouring of alveolar bone  
extraction   surgical removal of teeth may be necessary  
template   guide or pattern  
coping   (coverings) metal cover placed over the remaining natural tooth surfaces to provide attachments for overdentures  
reduction   (reducing or lessening in size) removal of tooth decay and surfaces to receive the appliance  
chamfer   (tapered margin at tooth cervix) preparation for crown placement  
shoulder   (cut gingival margin edge) preparation to provide junction of the crown and tooth  
bevel   (slanted edge) tooth preparation for seating and holding a crown  
core buildup   use of synthetic material to enlarge tooth core area to provide support for an artificial crown and to protect the pulpal tissues  
post placement   addition of a metal retention post to teeth that have had pulp removal and root canal enlargement, to aid in stability and strength  
undercut   removal of tooth structure near the gingival edge to provide a seat or placement for the extending edge of the appliance  
retraction cord   chemically treated cord placed in the gingival sulcus to obtain chemical or physical shrinking of the gingiva  
impregnated   saturated with chemicals  
bite registration   impression of the teeth while in occlusion  
open bite   patient bites into the impression material  
closed bite   the material is injected and expressed around the desired teeth while they are in occlusion  
opposing arch   impressions of the occlusal surfaces of both arches are taken in the same procedure  
work order   written directions from the dentist to the laboratory completing the case; the impressions, bite registration, and orders are sent together  
temporary or provisional coverage   temporary protection for the prepared tooth while laboratory work is being completed  
seating   placement and fitting of appliance for try-in and final cementation  
condylar inclination   (pertaining to the condyle; tendency, bending, bias) observation of bite relationship and TMJ involvement  
centric   (central, center) occuring when the condyle rests in the temporal bone buring biting, resting, and mouth movements  
protusion   (projecting or thrust forward) measurement with the mandible thrust forward, with the lower jaw out  
retrusion   (forcing backward) measurement with the mandible drawn backward  
lateral excursion   (side; movement) measurement with side-to-side movement of the mandible  
appearance indicators   notations of the smile line and the length of the cuspid point  
implant   (insertion of object) surgical insertion of implant posts or prepared frame to provide stabilization  
root form implant-endosseous   (within the alveolar bone) screw-type device that is screwed or cemented into the mandibular bone  
plate form implant   used for the narrow jaw bone  
subperiosteal   (under the gingival and alveolar tissues) implant plate or frame placed under the periodontium and stabilized on the mandibular bone  
transosteal   (through the mandibular bone) larger plate stabilized on the lower border of the mandibular bone with posts extending through the gingiva  
osseointegration   (osseo-bone; integrate-bonding) the process of appliances bonding with bone tissue in order to obtain stability  
endodontia   within the tooth  
endodontics   the branch of dentistry concerned with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases of the dental pulp and its surrounding tissues  
periradicular   peri-around; radi-root  
endodontist   dental specialist who is limited to and performing the practice of endodontics  
pulpitis   inflamed pulpal condition  
objective signs   condition observed by someone other than the patient  
hyperextension   (over movement) a condition in which the tooth arises out of the socket, or a noticeable, unpleasant odor  
putrefaction   (decaying animal matter) unpleasant odor  
subjective symptoms   conditions as described by the patient  
hypersensitivity   over sensitive  
pulpalgia   inner tooth tissue pain  
palpation   application of finger pressure to body tissues  
percussion   (tapping of body tissue, tooth) usually done by tapping a dental mirror handle on an affected tooth and comparing the sensation to tapping on a healthy or control tooth  
mobility   movement of a tooth in its socket during outside force or application of pressure  
transillumination   (passage of light through object/tissue) a light refraction test to receal fractured tooth tissue  
thermal   pulp sensitivity test with reaction to application of heat and/or cold to tooth surface  
anesthesia   numbing the specific root or nerve ending to dissipate pain  
direct dentin stimulation   scratching the exposed dentin with and explorer  
electric pulp testing   applying an electrical surrent on the enamel surface of the rooth to register the tooth;s pulpal sensitivity and presence of irritability  
periodontitis   inflammation around the tooth  
abscess   (local pus infection) and infection that may be an acute or chronic apical abscess  
suppurative   producing or generating pus  
pericementitis   inflammation and necrosis of alveoli of the tooth  
cyst   abnormal, closely walled fluid or exudates-filled sac in or around periapical tissues  
cellulitis   inflammation of cellular or connective tissue  
osteomyelitis   an inflammation of cellular or connective tissues  
pulpotomy   partial excision of the dental pulp  
pulpectomy   surgical removal of pulp from the tooth, also known as root canal treatment (RCT)  
apicoectomy   surgical amputation of a root apex  
isolation   accomplished to provide saftey and to assure an aseptic site  
extirpation   (to root out) removing the pulpal tissue after the pulpal opening  
debridement   (removal of foreign or decayed matter) removing necrotic pulpal tissue and cleaning out the area  
irrigation and cleansing   using chemicals and instruments to remoce tissue dust and material matter from the pulp and pulp canals  
obturation   (to close or stop up) filling and closing the canal area  
retrograde   (backward step) process of filling the canal begining from the apex of tooth to the pulp  
restoration   returning the tooth to normal function and purpose  
dental dam material   thin sheet of latex or non-latex rubber  
dental dam frame   device used to hold material in place  
dental dam punch   device used to place selected hold in the dam material for isolating a tooth or teeth  
dental dam forceps   hand device used to transport and place clamps or retainers around the selected tooth  
rubber dam stamp and pad   marking stamper and pad devices used to indicate alignment spots for puncturing the material with the punch  
dental dam clamp   retaining device used to hold the material around the tooth  
dental dam ligature   material used to hold and secure the dam material in the mouth  
broach   a thin, barbed, wire instrument, inserted into the root canal to ensnare and remove the pulp tissue and any natural or placed matter, such as paper points or cotton pellets  
reamer   a thin, twisted, sharp-edged instrument inserted into the canal and rotated clockwise to enlarge and taper the root canal  
file   a thin, rough-edged, instrument used to plane and smooth pulpal walls  
k-file   has twisted edges and is used to enlarge as well as too smooth walls  
hedstrom file   cone-shaped, twisted-edge instrument used for enlarging and smoothing  
flex file   stainless steel or nickel titanium alloy file that is stronger and provides more flexibility; used in narrow curved canals  
pesso reamer   thicker, engine driven, reamer with larger and longer parallel cutting edges for use in canal openings  
gates-glidden drills   engine-driven, latch-type burs with flame-shaped tip; used to provide an opening and access  
paper points   small, narrow, absorbent, paper tips that may be inserted into the obturated canal; used to dry the prep site or to carry medication to the area  
stopper   a small piece of elastic band or commercial plug that is moved up or down the shaft of the endo instrument; used to mark and indicate the lenght of penetration  
rotary burs aand stones   friction grip burs with diamond or carbide tips used to gain access through restorations and crowns  
filling instruments   used for filling canals are finger style for more curved canals  
root canal (endodontic) spreader   longer shank with pointed nib; used to carry and insert cement or filling material  
root canal plugger   longer-shanked with a flat tipped nib; used to condense and adapt the canal filling material  
root canal condenser   handled, long-tip instrument that may be heated and used to condense gutta-percha to the canal walls  
lentulo spiral drill   thin, twisted wire, latch-type rotary instrument used to spread calcium hydroxide or cement into the canal  
apex locator machines   are used to determine the proximity of the test file to the root apex and relate the information to PC board screen during preparation of the canal  
heat carrier machines   provide adjustable heat to soften, deliver, and condense guttapercha to the canal  
electric endodontic handpieces   permit use of instruments at slow speeds for finger instrumentation  
luer-loc syringe   a barrel-type syringe with piston force plunger, used to inject fluids into the cavity  
gutta-percha points   tapered points made of a thermoplastic compound; used to fill the root canal  
silver points   tapered silver points comparable in size to files and reamers; used to fill canals  
cement pastes and fillers   zinc oxide eugenol mixes and commercial materials; used to cement points in canal  
chelator   chemical ion softener  
desiccant   (dry up; remove) methanol or ethanol alcohol, used to dry the area or clear away other chemical traces  
medicament   (medicine or remedy) used for antimicrobial actions, to prevent pain, and to neutralize the pupl area  
curettage   (scraping of a cavity) scraping of the apical area; may be necessary to remove necrotic tissues  
apicoectomy   a procedure that may be necessary to remove the root apex, particularly where there is a radicular cyst involvement of the affected tooth; also called root end resection  
root amputation   (surgical removal of a root) separating and removing molar roots of an affected tooth at the junction into the crown  
root hemisection   (cutting tissue or organ in half) surgical division of a multi-rooted tooth that may be performed in a lengthwise manner  
bicuspidization   surgical division of a tooth retaining both sides  
traumatized   (wounded) teeth, with a cariety of pulp injuries  
luxation   (dislocation) tooth movement  
concussion luxation   (shaken violently) tooth loosened as a result of a blow; usually recovery occurs with minimal attention  
subluxation   (under displacement) tooth partially dislocated; may evidence bleeding but require only minor attention  
lateral luxation   tooth may be partially displaced with the root apex tilted forward  
extruded luxation   (pushed out of normal position) tooth may be forced partially out of its socket  
avulsion replantation   (forced or torn away) teeth that have been accidentally lost; may undergo RCT at this time or at a future appointment  
fracture   breakage; may be a broken cusp, broken crown, broken root, or split tooth  
replantation   replacing an avulsed tooth in its tooth socket  
transplantation   (across; plant) transfer of a tooth from one alveolar socket to another  
autogenous transplantation   (self; origin) moving a tooth from one position in the oral cavity to another area in the same cavity  
homogeneous transplantation   (same origin) transferring and inserting a tooth from one patient to another  
heterogenous transplantation   (other origin) transfer from one species to another, not yet a feasible practice  
implantation   (into place) placing titanium metal extensions into the tooth root  
intracanal bleaching   heating or photo-oxidizing with UV rays may help to lighten the tooth color  
oral maxillofacial surgeon   a dentist who has completed additional oral surgical studies of two or three years  
exodontia   extraction of a tooth  
forceps   (pincers for seizing, holding, or extracting) instrument made for maxillary or mandibular use; used for tooth extraction  
scalpel   a small, surgical knife that is used to cut open or excise tissue from a surgical area  
bone file   heavier and thicker than the file used on tooth and restoration surfaces  
elevators   device used to raise the tooth; of three types as used in oral surgery  
periosteal   (concerning the periosteum) used to loosen the periosteum tissue from bone, or detach the tissue around the cervix of the tooth and retract tissue in the surgical site  
periosteotome   cutting tissue around bone  
exolever   (device to raise or elevate) used to elecat or luxate a tooth from its natural socket  
apical   (pertaining to apex or tip) used to elevate or pick out remains of a fractured root tip  
hemostat   (device or drug used to arrest blood flow) scissor-style device with a locking joint and serrated beaks; used to clamp off or hold onto and transfer  
needle holder   similar to a hemostat except that the nose of the instrument is rounded and blunted with serrated criss-crossed edges inside its beaks to assist with holding a needle  
scissors   carious specialized scissors used in oral surgery  
tissue scissors   longer-handled scissors with a serrated blade edge that is used to grasp and hold the tissue during cutting  
suture scissors   smaller scissors with one curved, half-moon blade that is inserted under the suture thread during cutting  
bandage scissors   scissors used to cut materials and dressings during surgery; usually have one longer, blunted blade tip to insert under material  
rongeurs   (bone cutting) grasp-handled instrument similar to forceps; used to snip off bony edges and rough areas  
aspirating tips   suction tips with longer handles and narrower tip openings; used to aspirate sockets, deeper throat areas, and surgical sites  
chisel   device that is longer, thicker, and heavier than tooth chisels; used to chip away bone and to apply force enough to break inpacted molar teeth  
mallet   (surgical hammer) device used to apply pressure to chisels  
curette   hand instrument with a spoon-shaped face that is inserted in the socket or surgical site to scrape out infection and debris  
retractor   draw back  
tissue retractor   may be hemostat-type device with notched tips to hold tissue or claw like blade with holding tips; used to retract and hold tissue during surgical procedures  
cheek retractor   may be bent wire-shapped device or flat, curved handles used to scoop and hold cheek tissue  
tongue retractor   scissor-type instrument with longer shaft and padded or serrated edges; used to grasp and hold the tongue  
mouth prop   used to spread the jaws apart while the patient is asleep during surgery  
surgical bur   similar to dental burs; used to remove bone  
horizontal impaction   the tooth is horizontally tilted; may be leaning parallel to the floor at various angles  
veritcal impaction   tooth is in upright position but in close proximity to or under the crown of a nearby tooth  
distoangular impaction   crown of the tooth is slanted toward the distal surface and covered by tissue and/or bone  
mesioangular impaction   crown of the tooth is mesially tilted and covered by tissue and/or bone  
transverse impaction   tooth is situated sideways to the adjacent teeth and occlusal plane, and is covered by tissue and/or bone  
alveolectomy   the removal or two or more teeth during one procedure, the wearing away of the alveolar bone crests to prepare for dentures  
dry socket   loss of the natural clotting  
gingivectomy   surgical excision of unattached gingival tissue  
gingivoplasty   surgical recountour of gingival tissues  
periodontal flap surgery   surgical excision and removal of pocket or tissue extensions  
frenectomy   (surgical removal or resectioning of a frenum) surgery that may be performed on the maxillary labial  
pericoronitis   gingival irritation and infection  
diastema   a space between two teeth  
ankyloglossia   tongue tied  
incision and drainage   procedure preformed for a periodontal abcess; incision made into the affected area and an opening is obtained to remove and drain infected matter  
malady   disease or disorder  
incision biopsy   removing a wedge-shaped section of affected tissue along with some normal adjacent tissue  
excision biopsy   removing the entire lesion of affected tissue with some underlying normal tissue  
exfoliative biopsy   scraping with glass slide or tongue depressor to collect tissue cells for microscopic study  
malignant   tumor that is harmful or getting worse  
benign   tumor not considered life threatening  
leukoplakia   formation of white patches on mucous membrane of oral cavity that cannot be scraped off and have the potential for milignancy  
fibroma   benign, fibrous, encapsulated tumor of connective tissue  
papilloma   benign epithelial tumor of skin or mucous membrane  
hemangioma   benign tumor of dilated blood vessels  
granuloma   grandular tumor usually occurring with other diseases  
melanoma   malignant, pigmented mole or tumor  
basal or squamous cell carcinoma   malignant growth of epithelial cells  
osteoplasty   forming bones  
alveolectomy   usually performed to remove alveolar bone crests remaining after tooth ectraction in preparation for a smooth bone ridge for denture wear  
apicoectomy   usually requires opening of the periodontium, including some alveolar bone, and exposure with removal of the root apex  
exostosis   (bony outgrowth) removing overgrowths and smoothing in preparation for dentures  
torus   (rounded elevation) an excessive bone growth  
mandibularis   concerning the mandible  
palatinus   in the palate  
cysts   abnormal closed walled sac present in or around tissue  
dentigerous   cystic sac containing teeth  
radicular   cyst located alongside or at the apex of a tooth root  
ranula   cystic tumor found on underside of the tongue or in the sublingual or submaxillary ducts  
closed fracture reduction   repair with interoral fixation, tooth wiring, or ligation methods in which the teeth are "wired together" in proper alignment awaiting bone healing  
open fracture reduction   a more complicated procedure involving osteotomy and rigid fixation  
genioplasty   plastic surgery of the chin or sheek  
macrogenia   large or excessive chin  
microgenia   undersized chin  
lateral excessive/deficient   excessive bone in one direction and deficient bone in another  
asymmetrical   lack of balance of size and shape on opposite sides  
pseudomactogenia   excess of soft tissue presenting a chin with the look of abnormal size  
witch's chin   soft tissue drooping  
ptosis   drooping or sagging of an organ  
osteotomy   (bone incision) surgical movement of bone  
osteoplasty   (to form bones) removal of bone  
orthognathic surgery   surgical manipulation of the facial skeleton to restore facial esthetics and proper function to a congenital, developmental, or trauma-affected patient  
ridge augmentation   use of bone grafs to build or correct and underdeveloped or missing ridge  
arthrotomy   (cutting into a joint) reconstruction and alignment of the mandible for TMJ disorders  
retrusive   position with mandible backward  
protrusive   position with mandible forward  
lateral   position to the side: mesiolateral is toward center of face, distolateral is toward outside of face  
computerized madibular scan (CMS)   3-D tracking device to record functional movement of the jaw during opening, closing, chewing, and swallowing  
electyromyograph   (EMG) surface electrodes instrument to determine muscle activity during function  
electrosonograph (ESG)   recording of sounds during opening and closing of the jaw  
CT   cat scan; uses x-ray images taken at different angles and computerized into a cross section of anatomical features  
crepitus   grinding  
hemiarthroplasty   surgical repair of a joint with a partial joint implant reconstruction  
alloplastic reconstruction   rebuilding of the joint using manmade materials  
autogenous reconstruction   rebuilding of the joint using organic material  
total joint reconstruction   surgical intervention and use of artificial prostheses for the condyle, disc, and fossa of the temporal bone  
revision surgery   surgical correction of an area that has been operated upon previously, occurring when further degeneration happens, when previous implants have failed, or when going from a partial joint implant to a total implant  
cleft lip   tissue fissure or incomplete juncture of maxillary lip tissues  
cleft palate   congenital fissure in roof of mouth with an opening into the nasal cavity  
cleft tongue   bifid or split tongue; usually split at the tip  
endosteal   placement within the bone  
subperiosteal   (beneath the periosteum and placed onto the bone) usually a cast framework implant with protruding pegs that is placed over the bone and under the periosteum  
transosteal   (through the mandibular bone) anchor implants that are placed all the way through the mandible  
endodontic   (within the tooth) titanium post placed in the apex of an endodontically treated tooth to improve the crown-root length ratio  
titanium   has high strength; oxidizes readily on cantact with tissue fluid and has a minimum amount of corrosion  
ceramic   is biocompatible but is not used in stressful areas  
polymers and composites   in the research stage, may be used as abutments in partially edentulous mouth  
stainless steel and cobalt-chromium alloys   older but less used metal materials  
cobalt-chromium-molybdenum   implant material used in prosthesis construction for TMJ replacement  
orthodontia   the study of dealing with the prevention and correction of abnormally positioned or misaligned teeth  
orthodontist   concerned with the causes and treatment of malocclusion  
centric relation   the most retruded position of the mandibular condyle into the glenoid fossa (biting on the back teeth)  
neutroclusion   condition in which the anteroposterior occlusal positions of the teeth or the mesiodistal positions are normal but other malocclusion or positioning of the individual teeth occurs  
distoclusion   condition in which the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxiallary first molar is anterior to the buccal groove of the mandibular first molar, resulting in an appearance of a retruded mandible  
mesioclusion   condition in which the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar occludes in the interdental space of the mandibular permanent first molar's distal cusp and the mesial cusp of the mandibular permanent second molar (protruded mandible)  
supernumerary or ectopic   (out of place) eruption of teeth  
open bite   anterior teeth do not contact with each other  
overjet   also known as horizontal overbite, increased horizontal distance between the incisal edges of maxillary and mandibular central incisors  
vertical overbite   excessive amount of overlap of maxillary and mandibular contral incisors when they are in occlusion  
crossbite   midsagittal alignment between central incisors not in agreement  
underjet   maxillary incisors lingual to mandibular incisors  
end to end   edges of maxillary and mandibular incisors meeting each other  
preventive orthodontics   action taken to preserve the integrity of a normal developing occlusion by protection current conditions or preventing situations that would interfere with growth  
myotherapeutic   muscle healing treatment  
interceptive orthodontics   procedures taken to lessen the severity of any existing malfunctions or problems from genetic or enviromental factors  
corrective orthodontics   procedures taken to reduce or eliminate malocclusion  
rotation   (turn around on an axis) altering the position of a tooth around its long axis  
translation   bodily tooth movement; a change of teeth to alternate positions  
tipping   change of tooth position to a more upright direction  
intrusion   movement of the tooth into the alveolus  
extrusion   movement of the tooth out of the alveolus  
torque   movement of the root without movement of the crown  
banding   placing metal band around entire selective tooth or teeth  
direct bonding   cementing stainless steel or golden metal brackets  
viazis   a triangular bracket  
damon   self-ligating sustem bracket  
invisalign braces   strong plastic custom trays used in mild malocclusion cases  
lingual braces   braces that are placed on the tongue side of the teeth  
accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment   surgical orthodontic team approach that involves incising the gingiva to expose the alveolar bone, where a surgical drill is used to place holes to weaken and demineralize the bone  
adjunctive orthodontics   procedures taken to facilitate other dental procedures that are necessary to correct or restore function  
cephalometric radiographs   (measurement of the head) are used for evaluation of dentofacial development in tracings for future growth patterns and directions  
bands   stainless steel circles or rings that are sized and cemented around a tooth  
bracket   (support) a metal or clear resin holding device used to support and stabilize the archwire in the mouth  
soldered   joining of two metals  
DB   direct bonded brackets  
archwire   horeshoe-shaped stainless steel or nickel titanium wire that may be round, rectangular, or square and removable or fixed  
buccal tubes   support devices soldered on bands into which headgear and archwires are inserted  
button, cleats, hooks, eyelets   devices used for support and holding power devices, elastics, and wires  
ligature   (binder or tie off) thin, stainless steel wires ised to tie on or attachwires and any necessary attachments  
elastics   sized latex circles providing various pull forces, or elastomeric ties for holding  
auxiliary springs   noble metal or stainless steel attachement to apply directional force  
separators   (device to set aside) brass wire, steel spreings, or elastomeric materials placed between the teeth to obtain space before placing the bands  
headgear   device composed of facebow and traction; is used to apply external force  
facebow   stainless steel external archbow device that is inserted into the fixed molar tubes on the maxillary first molars  
traction device   fitted, expandanle device to be hooked onto a facebow after placement on the head  
cervical device   circles the patient's neck and attaches to facebow to pull in a parallel position to retract teeth  
high-pull device   fits on top of the patient's head and hooks in a downward position, perpendicular to occlusion, to retract anterior teeth and control maxillary growth  
combination high-pull and cervical device   traction combining both forces  
chin device   placed on the chin, incorporates high-pull and cervical forces and is used to control mandible growth  
aligner   and invisalign system of computer-imaged and computer-generated clear plastic overlay trays used with milder cases of misaligned teeth  
activator   appliance designed to guide, change, or alter facial and jaw functions for a more favorable occlusion position  
Hawley appliance   removable, customized, acrylic and wire appliance designed to maintain newly acquired tooth positions  
stev plate   maxillary bite plane covering incisal edges of maxillary incisors; may be used in conjunction with headgear or for retention of the bite  
crozat appliance   removable appliance made of precious alloy with body wires, lingual arms, and a high labial archwire (maxillary)  
lingual retainer   mandibular lingual bar with cuspid-to-cuspid cemented unions, to maintain lower incisors in position  
orthodontic tooth positioner   customized mouth device constructed of soft acrylic or rubberized material surrounding the crowns of all the teeth in both jaws  
palatal expanders   known as RPE (rapid palatal expanders), a fixed appliance cemented to the maxillary molar teeth with a spring insert in the palate area  
fixed space maintainer   custom-constructed appliance attached to the remaining teeth to hold a tooth pattern or to maintain space from premature loss of tooth  
oral shield   device that fits into the vestibule space between the teeth and the lips  
mouthguard   though not considered a treatment appliance, protects the tooth position while the parient is involved in sport activities  
dental appliances   specialized mouth appliances for health disorders such as sleep apnea, thumb sucking, nail biters, and tongue thrusters  
band-remover pliers   used to remove bands from teeth  
bird-beak pliers   used to bend and shape appliance wires  
loop-forming pliers   used to form and shape loops in wires  
howe pliers   used to make archwire adjustment  
three-prong pliers   used to close or adjust clasps  
contouring pliers   used to contour bands for concave or convex tilt  
ligature-tying pliers   used to tie or bind off ligature wires and to place elastics  
arch-forming pliers   used for bending or holding dimensional wires  
stress and tension guage   narrow, hand-held instrument with interior marked sliding scale  
band seater   rounded, serrated end used to "seat" band onto tooth  
ligature tucker   straight-handled instrument with claw-like end that is used to guide ligatures and assist with the bending of cut wire edges  
bracket tweezers   reverse-action, small-ended tweezers used to place direct-bond brackets  
ligature cutter   used to cut ligature wire, intraorally or extraorally  
pin and fine wire cutter   used to cut or snip off ends of tied ligature wires  
weingart utility plier   used for placing archwires  
anterior band slitter   used to shear upper and lower bands  
distal end cutter   used to cut and hold arch wire that was inserted into the buccal tube  
band pusher   used to push and seat bands onto the teeth  
ligature director   used to direct and place ligature wires  
scaler   hand instrument used to remove sxcess cement from bands, and to direct wires, bands, and elastics into place  
direct-bonding bracket holder   used to hold DB's in position during placement  
edgewise pliers   used to hold or adjust archwires  
hemostat   scissor-like clamps, straight and curved; used to carry or hold small objects  
boone gauge   measuring device used to establish the height of the orthodontic bands  
bitestick   plastic- or metal-handled instrument with projecting serrated steel area that is used to help "seat" posterior bands  
protractor   triangular premarked form used to make cephalometric tracing  
periodontology   is the field of dentistry that deals with the treatment of disease of the tissues around the teeth  
attached gingiva   the portion that is firm, dense, stippled,and bound to the underlying periosteum, tooth, and bone  
keratinized   hard tissue  
marginal gingiva   the portion that is unattached to underlying tissues and helps to form the sides of the gingival crevice  
sulcus   groove  
papillary gingiva   the part of the marginal gingiva that occupies the interproximal spaces  
periodontal ligaments   bundles of fibers that support and retain the tooth in the socket  
cementum   outer, hard surface convering of the root section of the tooth  
alveolar bone process   compact bone that forms the tooth socket  
cribriform   sieve-like plate  
laminadura   lining, thin layer  
alveolar crest fibers   found at the cementoenamel junction; help to retain the tooth in its socket and protect the deeper fibers  
horizontal fibers   connect te alveolar bone to the upper part of the root and assist with control of lateral movement  
oblique fibers   attach the alveolar socket to the majority of the root cementum and assist in resisting the axial forces  
apical fiber bundles   running from the apex of the tooth to the alveolar bone, fibers that help to prevent tipping and dislocation, as well as protect nerve and blood supply to the tooth  
interradicular fiber bundles   are present in multirooted teeth, extending apically from the tooth furcation; help the tooth resist tipping, turning, and dislocation  
plaque   plate or buildup  
erythema   the gingica is red and appears inflamed  
edema   overgrown tissue  
hyperplasia   excessive number of tissue cells  
hypertrophy   excessive cellular growth  
stippling   spotting  
exudate   passing out of pus  
dental plaque involvement   tissues react to irritants  
non-dental plaque lesions   these are of specific bacterial, viral, fungal, or genetic origin  
allergies   the patient may be allergic to dental restorative materials, reactions to foods, additives, and so forth  
traumatic lesions, injury   the patient may have been subjected to an external force or have been injured in some way  
chronic periodontitis   this is the most common type of slowly progressive periodontal disease  
aggressive periodontitis   a rapidly progressive disease  
refractory periodontitis   periodontitis progresses in spite of excellent patient compliance  
desquamative   painful, red tissues that are shedding or scaling off  
periodontitis as manifetation of systemic disease   periodontal inflammatory reactions occur as a result of diseases and genetic disorders  
necrotizing periodontal diseases   rapid gingival tissue distruction with bacterial invasion of connective tissue may be a manifestation of systemic disease  
necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis   with a foul odor and loss of interdental papilla, sometimes called "trench mouth"  
necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis   with bone pain and rapid bone loss  
periodontitis associated with endodontic lesions   this simple classification was added to distinguish between periodontitis and periodontitis with endodontic inflammation involvement  
developmental or acquired deformities and conditions   deformities appear around teeth, edentulous ridges, and form trauma  
medical history   questions regarding diabetes, pregnancy, smoking, hypersension, didication, substance abuse, and so forth  
dental history   chief complaint, past dental records, and radiographs; complete assessment of restoration condition, toth position, mobility  
extraoral structure assessment   exam of oral mucosa, muscles of mastication, lips, floor of mouth, tongue, palate, salicary glands, and the oropharynx area  
periodontal probing depths   charting and recording finding of probe depths, assessing plaque and calculus presence, soft tissue, and implant conditions  
assessing introoral findings   exam for toried, abnormal frenum placement and size, furcation involvement  
periodontal probe   a round or flat-bladed hand instument marked in milimeter increments  
periodontal debridement   removing supragingival and sibgingival plaque, calculus, stain, and irritants through tooth-crown and root-surface scaling and root planing  
tooth and surface polishing   polishing surfaces to remove accumulated stains on the tooth surfaces  
extrinsic   outer  
endotoxins   absorbed pathogens  
selective polishing   term applied to the polishing of chosen tooth sites or areas  
prophylaxis   term applied to the combination of debridement and tooth polishing  
patient education   customized instruction in oral hygiene, the care of teeth and gingival tissue  
antimicrobal   against small life  
correction of plaque retention factors   dental intervention in existing conditions of open contacts, overcrowding, open or overhanging restoration margins, narrow embrasures, and ill-fitting appliances  
monitoring of patient   determination of progress and reevalutaion of patient condition and efforts  
mucogingival excision   used to correct defects in shape, position, or amount of gingiva around the tooth  
gingivectomy   excision of gum tissue area  
gingivoplasty   surgical contour of gingival tissue  
periodontal flap surgery   separating a loosened section of tissue from the adjacent tissues to enable elimination of deposits and contouring of alveolar bone  
envelope flap   no vertical incision with the mucoperiosteal flap retracted from a horizontal incision line  
mucoperiosteal   mucosal tissue flap including the periosteum, reflected from the bone  
partial-thickness flap   surgical flap including mucosa and connective tissue but no periosteum  
pedicle flap   tissue flap with lateral incisions  
positioned flap   flap that is moved to a new position, apically, laterally, or coronally  
repositioned flap   surgical flap replaced in its original position  
sliding flap   pedicle flap re-dituated in a new position  
osseous surgery   tissue surgery with alteration in bony support of the teeth  
re-entry   second-stage surgical procedure to enhance or improve conditions from a previous surgical procedure  
vestubuloplasty   surgical alteration of gingival mucous membrane in vestibule of the mouth  
ENAP   (excisional new attachment procedure) removal of chronically inflamed soft tissue to permit formation of new tissue attachment  
guided tissue regeneration   placement of a semipermeable membrane beneath the flap  
bone graphs   involve transplants to restore bone loss from periodontal disease  
allograft   human bone graft from someone other than the patient  
autograft   bone graft from another site in the same patient  
xenograft   graft taken from another species (experimental)  
allogenic   addition of synthetic material to repair or build up bone  
endosteal   implants of various designs placed within the bone  
subperiosteal   implant placement beneath the periosteum and onto the bone  
transosteal   implant placement through the bone  
endodontic   implant set within the apex of the root  
periodontal probe   used to measure the depth of the periodontal pocket by determining the amount of gingival tissue attachment  
explorer   instrument with a longer, tapered, thin wire tip to determine claculus formation, restoration overhangs  
scaler   instrument with a sharpened blade to remove supragingival claculus deposits and stains  
hoe   instrument with a long sank and hoe-like tip, used to remove heavy or thick supragingival calsulus in posterior areas  
chisel   instrument with longer shaft and chisel-bladed tip, used to break off and remove heavy calculus in the anterior region  
curette   instrument with longer shank and working end with a rounded toe and back to access and remove subgingival deposits  
ultrasonic and sonic instrument tip   inserted into the ultrasonic handle  
periodontal pocket marker   set of instruments similar to tweezers with a sharp point on one tip for insertion into the depth of the pocket and then compressed to make puncture marks indication pocket depth  
periodontal knives   used to make incisions to remove tissue or to obtain flap design  
electrosurgery tips/unit   apparatus using electrical current to incise tissue and coagulate blood at the same time  
laser tip/unit   apparatus delivering energy in light form at different wavelengths  
pedodontist   treats the child patient until the premolars erupt or the beginning of the teen years  
deciduous teeth   baby teeth  
caries   dental decay  
epulis   fibrous, sarcomatous tumor  
abscess   local collection of pus  
cellulites   inflammation in cellular or connective tissue  
anodontia   absence of teeth, usually of genetic origin  
macrodontia   abnormally large teeth  
hyperdontia   excess number of supernumerary teeth  
hypodontia   congenital absence of teeth  
enamel hypoplasia   underdevelopment of enamel tissue  
dentinogenesis imperfecta   genetic defect resulting in incomplete or improper development of dentin tissue  
amelogenesis imperfecta   imcomplete or improper development of enamel tissue  
aplasia   failure of an organ or body part to develop  
dens in dente   tooth within a tooth  
germinate   (sprout) attempted division of a single tooth  
fusion of teeth   union of two, independently developing primary or secondary teeth  
early tooth exfoliation   (shedding or falling off) tooth loss resulting in the shifting of teeth and loss of tooth position  
ankylosis   stiff joint; retention of deciduous tooth  
intrinsic   (on the inside)internal discoloration of teeth resulting from diet, medication, or excessive fluoride intake during tooth development  
odontoma   (tumor of a tooth or dental tissue) abnormal cell proliferation of cells  
macroglossia   (large tongue) enlarged tongue  
micrognathia   abnormally small jaw; undersized mandible  
cherubism   a genetic disorder resulting in enlargement of cheek tissue and other facial structures  
papilloma   neoplasm arising from epithelial cells; benign tumor  
verruca vulgaris   (oral warts) Viral cause, possibly from finger sucking  
fibroma   fibrous tumor  
granuloma   ganular tumor  
neurofibromatosis   tumor on peripheral nerves  
hemangioma   vascular tumor, usually located in the neck/head area  
lymphangioma   tumor made up of lymphatic vessels  
lymphoma   new tissue growth within the lymphatic system  
mucocele   mucous cyst  
ranula   mucocele in the floor of the mouth in the sublingual duct  
scorbutic   lacking vitamin C  
candidiasis   fungus infection, thrush  
enamoplasty   is the selective reduction of fissures and occlusal irregularities caused by grinding  
festooned   trimmed  
apexpgenesis   treatment of a vital pulp to allow continued natural development  
apexification   treatment of a nonvital tooth to stimulate closure and the development of cementum  
pulp capping   placement of medication to sedate and treat inflamed pulp  
indirect capping   is needed when the pulp has not yet been exposed  
direct capping   the medicament is placed directly upon the exposed, affected pulp  
pulpotomy   partial or full removal of pulpal tissue located in the crown  
pulpectomy   removal of pulpal tissue from the crown and root sections  
papoose board   wrapping device used to restrain the patient for a difficult or precise treatment  
topical anesthesia   liquid, gel, or ointment that provides temporary numbing of the tissue surface  


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