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Animal Science

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.
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Hunter-gatherers   first domesticated animals and used the meat, bones, and skins just as they had done before domestication; other uses (milk, clothing, power, war, sport, and prestige) came later.  
Animal science is   simply the collective study of domestic animals.  
Animal science is divided into specific disciplines, or specialties as follows: (8 of Them)   – Animal Genetics – Animal Nutrition – Animal Physiology – Animal health – Ethology – Meat science – Dairy product science – Biotechnology  
approximately___billion large farm animals and ___billion poultry throughout the world.   4.5 and 19.8  
Poultry numbers have increased more rapidly at an average rate of over__annually.   5%  
• meat supplies approximately____ • milk provides approximately____, • fish supplies approximately____, • and eggs supply___.   49.5%, 25.8%, 16% 8.7%  
Meat, eggs, and dairy products are important food sources because they are   Nutrient Dense  
Annual per capita meat supply ranges from over____. in affluent countries to very little in poor countries.   300 lbs  
The___is the most important meat source, producing__of the world’s meat   pig 38%  
World meat production has increased steadily for many years at an average rate of___per year   2%  
Cattle supply___of the world’s milk supply. – Buffalos supply ___of world’s milk.   83% 13%  
In addition to meat, poultry species produce a_____high quality product—____.   Second Eggs  
sheep (____and Persian lambskins), • goats (_____and mohair),   wool Cashmere  
xenotransplantation (what happens to a pig liver and human liver)   the replacing of human organs with those from animals, is an active and promising area of research  
• The stresses of the natural and/or artificial environment that affect animals may be classified as: (5 of them)   -climatic stresses, – nutritional stresses, – internal stresses, – geographical stresses, – and social stresse  
_______or______changes are changes in form and structure.   Morphological Anatomical  
Two terms,__________and________, refer to a country’s level of economic development   Developed Countries Developing Countries  
___________are usually small, labor-intensive farm units. __________are usually large range units.   Intensive Systems Extensive Systems  
________is the study of how the body uses the nutrients in feed to sustain life and for productive purposes.   Nutrition  
________are substances required for life processes, reproduction, growth and lactation   Nutrients  
The nutrient classifications are: .   – water, – carbohydrates, – vitamins, – minerals, – proteins, – and fats (lipids)  
The amount of nutrients depends on:   – type of species, its digestive tract, and any peculiarities of its metabolism; – and the level of production and the product(s) being produced (work, fetus, growth, milk, eggs, and fiber).  
Monogastrics, or nonruminants   are one stomached, or simple-stomach animals. Include chicken, turkey, swine and horse  
ruminants   —cattle, sheep, goats have four compartment stomach. Pseudoruminants (llamas) have three  
Prehension,   the means an animal uses to bring food into its mouth, is the first step of digestion.  
• Mastication •   , or chewing, involves the action of the jaw and teeth to crush the food.  
Salivation   includes secretion and mixing of saliva with food  
The small intestine is divided into three portions:   duodenum jejunum ileum  
The large intestine has three parts: (CCR)   the cecum, the colon, and the rectum.  
Defecation   is the discharge of excrement from the body via the rectum or cloaca.  
Micturition   is urination  
The complex stomach is comprised of four compartments:   – rumen, – reticulum, – omasum, – and the abomasum.  
genotype,   sets the stage for traits such coat type, coat color, speed, body composition, growth, reproduction, milk production, disease resistance, and other  
Chromosome Number of Different Species Buffalo__ • Cat__ • Cattle__ • Dog__ • Donkey__ • Goat__ • Horse__ • Pig__ • Sheep__   60 38 60 78 62 60 64 38 54  
• The segment of the deoxyribose, phosphate, and one of the bases is called a______.   nucleotide  
The entire genetic material of an animal is termed its_____.   genome  
Each parent produces reproductive cells called _____.   gametes  
Another feature of the chromosome is the ______, which can be located anywhere along the chromosome.   centromere  
_______is the process of somatic cell division   Mitosis  
The cell division that occurs in gametogenesis is called_____.   meiosis  
Renewable   You don't kill the animals you cut the hair/ take the fat etc. and it will grow back  
China   produces the most pork in the world  
Fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)   Not washed through urine  
Water Soluble Vitamins ( B and C)   Washed out through urine  
Cellulose   major carbohydrate found in forages such as fresh pastures, silage, and hay  
Sheeps   8000 bc  
Goats Cattles Pigs   6500 bc  
Chicken   6000 bc  
llama   5500 bc  
donkeys   4000 bc  
horses   3500 bc  
reindeer   3000 bc  
The most important us for animals for humans is food. Name the 5 other uses.   1. Religion 2. Companionship 3. Sports 4. Recreation 5. Manufacturing  
DNA sequencing suggest that the dog may have been domesticated 135,000 years ago, but archeological evidence suggest that the dog was domesticated ____________ years ago.   14,000 years ago (12,000) BC  
How much of the worlds meat, milk, and wool come from large farm animals is developing countries? What are some reasons?   1/3 Lack of technology, different objectives of production, disease challenges, and environmental stresses.  
List 6 food contributions of animals to humans   1. Meat 2. Blood 3. Fat 4. Edible slaughter by-products 5. Milk 6. Eggs  
List 7 body covering contributions of animals to humans   1. Pelts 2. Feathers 3. Fur 4. Hair 5. Hides 6. Leather 7. Wool  
List 2 work contributions of animals to humans   1. Draft and other labor 2. Transportation  
List 4 body waste contributions of animals to humans   1. Fuel 2. Fertilizers 3. Construction material 4. Animal feed  
List 6 other uses for animals   1. Income 2. Recreation 3. Storage of capital 4. Prestige 5. Religion/ cultural needs 6. Companionship  
Plants supply ___% of the total food energy consumed by the world.   82.8%  
Animal product supply __% of the total food energy consumed by the world.   17.2%  
Animals supply __% of the world's protein.   38.5%  
__% of the calories in the average diet in North America is from animal products compared to __% for the average African?   27% 7.4%  
Draft animals are important in what three countries?   Asian, African, and Latin American  
What amount of feed in the U.S is inedible for humans?   2/3  
List 6 feeds in U.S. livestock that is not suitable for human consumption.   1. Hay 2. Coarse forages 3. Damaged foods 4. By products 5. Garbage 6. Pasture  
The world's population is expected to reach 9 billion by what year?   2050  


   






 
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