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3.2 Vocab

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Carbohydrate   Any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things.  
Monosaccharide   A simple sugar that is the basic subunit, or monomer, of a carbohydrate  
Disaccharide   A sugar formed from two monosaccharide's  
Polysaccharide   One of the carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars; polysaccharides include starch, cellulose, and glycogen  
Protein   An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells  
Amino Acid   An organic molecule that contains a carboxyl and an amino group and that makes up proteins; a protein monomer  
Peptide Bond   The chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid  
Polypeptide   A long chain of several amino acids  
Enzyme   A type of protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions in plant and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed  
Substrate   A part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes  
Active Site   The site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate  
Lipid   A large, nonpolar organic molecule, including fats and steroids; lipids store energy and make up cell membranes  
Fatty Acid   An organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils  
Triglyceride   A lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule  
Phospholipid   A lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes  
Wax   A type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain  
Steroid   A type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action  
Nucleic Acid   An organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information  
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)   The material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics  
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)   An organelle that contains most of the RNA in the cell and that is responsible for ribosome function  
Nucleotide   In a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base  


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