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Genetics: Reproduction

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Term
Definition
Gamete   A reproductive cell having a single set of chromosomes, Such as a mature sperm or egg.  
Budding   Asexual reproduction in which a part of an organism breaks off and becomes a new organism  
Mutation   A change in the DNA sequence that make up a gene  
Sex linked trait   A trait that is determined by the sex chromosomes of an organism.  
Selective breeding   The process of reproducing plants and animals so that a desirable trait is carried into future generations.  
Genetic engineering   The process of transferring genes from one organism to another to produce a desirable trait.  
Diploid   Having a pair of each type of chromosome so that the basic chromosome number is doubled.  
Haploid   Having a single set of chromosomes.  
Meiosis   The process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, leading to the production of gametes in animals and spores in plants.  
Mitosis   The process by which the nucleus divides, typically consisting of four stages, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase; resulting in two new nuclei, each of which contains a complete copy of the parental chromosomes.  
Autosome   A chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.  
Sex chromosomes   Either of a pair of chromosomes, usually designated X or Y, in the germ cells of most animals and some plants, that combine to determine the sex and sex-linked characteristics of an individual, with XX resulting in a female and XY in a male in mammals.  
Homologous chromosome   A pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent, that have corresponding gene sequences and that pair during meiosis  
Ovum   The female reproductive cell of animals; egg.  
Oogenesis   The formation, development, and maturation of the female gamete (egg) by meiosis.  
Spermatogenesis   Formation and development of male gamete (sperm) by meiosis.  
Trisomy   The condition of having three copies of a given chromosome in each somatic cell, rather than the normal number of two.  
Monosomy   A chromosome having no homologue, especially an unpaired X-chromosome.  
Karyotype   The characterization of the chromosomal complement of an individual or a species, including number, form, and size of the chromosomes.  


   






 
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Created by: darrin_evans