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A reproductive cell having a single set of chromosomes, Such as a mature sperm or egg.
Asexual reproduction in which a part of an organism breaks off and becomes a new organism
A change in the DNA sequence that make up a gene
Sex linked trait
A trait that is determined by the sex chromosomes of an organism.
The process of reproducing plants and animals so that a desirable trait is carried into future generations.
The process of transferring genes from one organism to another to produce a desirable trait.
Having a pair of each type of chromosome so that the basic chromosome number is doubled.
Having a single set of chromosomes.
The process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, leading to the production of gametes in animals and spores in plants.
The process by which the nucleus divides, typically consisting of four stages, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase; resulting in two new nuclei, each of which contains a complete copy of the parental chromosomes.
A chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Either of a pair of chromosomes, usually designated X or Y, in the germ cells of most animals and some plants, that combine to determine the sex and sex-linked characteristics of an individual, with XX resulting in a female and XY in a male in mammals.
A pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent, that have corresponding gene sequences and that pair during meiosis
The female reproductive cell of animals; egg.
The formation, development, and maturation of the female gamete (egg) by meiosis.
Formation and development of male gamete (sperm) by meiosis.
The condition of having three copies of a given chromosome in each somatic cell, rather than the normal number of two.
A chromosome having no homologue, especially an unpaired X-chromosome.
The characterization of the chromosomal complement of an individual or a species, including number, form, and size of the chromosomes.