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Kidney/Gonad Development

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What are the steps in the process of UG development-analogy to plumbing?   1. Install the pipes 2. Move the filtration system 3. Deal with the sewer 4. Remodel the pipes  
What is installing the pipes?   achieve the sexually indifferent stage  
What is the moving of the filtration system?   Ascent of the kidneys  
What is dealing with the sewer?   Differentiation of the cloaca  
What is the remodeling of the pipes?   achieving sexual differentiation  
At the 3-4 week the inetermediate mesoderm becomes   nephrogenic cord  
Nephrogenic cord gives rise to   mesonephrus and gonads  
Endoderm becomes   cloaca  
cloaca gives rise to   urethra and rectum  
At week 3 the nephrogenic cord forms the   pronephros  
What happens to the pronephros?   regresses as more caudal units are formed  
What happens at week 4 as the pronephros regresses permenantly?   Mesonephrus is formed  
Mesonephric duct is also known as the   Wolffian duct  
Week 5 the metanephros is formed caudally by   mesoderm  
What grows out from teh mesonephric duct into teh metanephros?   ureteric bud  
What does the ueteric bud give rise to?   ureter Kidney outflow renal pelvis calyces collecting tubules  
The paramesonephric duct develops from the   lateral mesothelium  
Cranially, the ends of the paramesonephric duct opens into the   peritoneal cavity  
Caudally the paramesonephric duct fuse   caudally in the furture pelvis  
Week 5-6 the paramesonephric duct fuses caudally to form the   uterovaginal peritoneum and the Mullerian tubercle  
Week 5 the genital ridge is formed by the proliferation of _____________ and condensation of ___________.   epithelium;mesenchyme  
The ridge formed by the developing gonad and the mesonephros is the __________ ridge   urogenital  
What are the indifferent gonads?   primitive sex cords  
What adult structures do the mesonephric duct form?   Most of the internal male reporductive system  
What adult structures do the metanephric duct form?   uereter renal pelvis calyces colle ting tubules  
What adult structure does the paramesonephric duct form?   uterus uterine tubes  
What adult structres does the pronephros form?   gone by 4th week  
What does teh mesonephros form?   TBFIL  
What adult structure forms from the metanephros   kidneys  
What adult structure does the genital ridge form?   gonads  
What adult structure does the cloac form?   bladder anal canal Prostrate urethral and paraurethral glands  
Kidneys receive progressively cranial branches off the   aorta  
The most superior branch of the aorta that the kidney receives is the _________-   renal artery  
What happens if a kidney is horseshoe-shaped?   It gets stuck under the inferior mesonteric artery  
The cloaca is derived from ________   endoderm  
The cloaca becomes partition from   week 4-7  
If an accessory renal artery remains it may obsturct the   ureter  
The ventral partition of the cloaca becomes the   urogenital sinus  
The dorsal portion of the cloaca is the   anorectal canal  
The urogenital septum becomes the   perineal body  
The UG septum is formed by three folds. What are they?   2 lateral folds and one cranio-caudal fold  
The urogential sinus gives rise to the adult ______________________.   bladder urethra uracus part of phallus  
Anal canal gives rise to the adult   rectum and anal canal  
Externally, the division of the cloaca ends with   urethral fold genital swelling genital tubercle anal fold  
The allantois becomes a fibrous cord called the   ruachus  
The urachus becomes the   median umbilical ligament  
Week 6 is the march of the   germ cell  
Where do germ cells march?   they migrate from teh yolk sac to the hindgut and move toward the genital ridge  
What do the germ cells carry?   male or female chromosome  
What are germ cells responsible for?   differentiation into male or female  
What 3 things have to be differentiated?   gonads ducts external genetalia  
SRY gene encourages the primitive sex cords to   proliferate  
tunica albuginea   layer of fibrous connective tissue surrounding the testis  
testis cords   Duct system within the testis  
Intersitial cells of Leydig and sertoli cells   responsible for producing testosterone and inhibiting mullerian ducts  
What remains as teh mesonephros continues to regress/   efferent ductules  
The epididymus forms as the ___________ elongates.   mesonephric duct  
The caudal outbudding of the mesonephric duct becomes the   seminal vesicle  
Between the seminal vesicle and epididymus becomes the   Ductus deferens  
What does the mesonephric duct become in males?   epididymus seminal vesicles vas deferens  
What does teh paramesonephric duct become in males?   generally gone  
What does gonad become in males?   testes  
The elongation of the genital tubercle in the male elongates forming a   urethral groove  
The urethral groove becomes teh   penile urethra  
the Penile urethra later forms the   external urethral meatus  
Phallus/genital tubercle =   glans penis  
urethral folds =   body of penis  
Genital swelling =   scrotum  
Genital tubercle in a male becomes the   phallus/glans penis  
The urethral fold becomes the __________ in the male.   body of the penis  
The genital swellings become what in the male?   scrotum  
WNT4 gene and estrogens influence   ovarian differentiation  
Surface epithelium   layer of fibrous connective tissue  
Ductuli efferentes   do not communicate with folicular cells and continue to regress  
Primary oocytes are surrounded by   follicular cells  
What tubles remain as the mesonephros regresses in teh female?   epoophoron paroophoron gartner's cyst  
The paramesonephric duct meets up with other side midline and forms the   uterine tubes and uterus  
Uterus is formed completely by   the paramesonephric cutcs  
What is the vagina formed from?   endoderm and mesoderm  
What female structure is formed from teh mesonephric duct?   gone  
What female structure does the paramesonephric duct form?   uterine tubes uterus cervix superior portion of vagina  
What female structure does the urogential sinus form from?   distal 2/3 vagina  
What does the gonad develop into in the female?   ovary  
What female structure does the genital tubercle become?   clitoris  
What female structure does the urethral fold become?   labia minora  
What female structure does the urethral groove become?   vestibule  
What do the genital swellings become?   labia majora  
What is the suprarenal gland surrounded by?   the fibrous connective tissue capsule  
What are the three arteries to the suprarenal glands?   superior suprarenal artery middle suprarenal artery Inferior suprarenal artery  
Blood from each suprarenal glad is drained by   a single suprarenal vein  
Where does the left suprarenal vein drain?   left renal vein  
Where does the right suprarenal vein drain?   inferior vena cava  
What are chromaffin cells?   essentially sympathetic ganglia cells  
Pre-synaptic sympathteics to the suprarenal gland come from   T10-11 via the lesser splanchnic nerves  


   


 
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