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Respiratory System - Q – Diagnostic terms & A – Meaning

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.
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Question
Answer
asthma   panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucous membrane; characterized by paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough  
   
atelectasis   collapse of lung tissue (alveoli) (atele = imperfect; -ectasis = expansion or dilation)  
   
bronchiectasis   abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus  
   
bronchitis   inflammation of the bronchi  
   
bronchogenic carcinoma   lung cancer; cancer originating in the bronchi  
   
bronchospasm   constriction of bronchi caused by spasm (involuntary contraction) of the peribronchial smooth muscle  
   
emphysema   obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air and destructive changes in their walls, resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange (emphysan = to inflate)  
   
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)   permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema  
   
cystic fibrosis   inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous (sticky) mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infecti  
   
laryngitis   inflammation of the larynx  
   
laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)   inflammation of the upper airways with swelling; creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct “seal bark” cough  
   
   
   
laryngospasm   spasm of the laryngeal muscles, causing a constriction  
   
nasal polyposis   presence of numerous polyps in the nose (a polyp is a tumor on a stalk)  
   
pharyngitis   inflammation of the pharynx  
   
pleural effusion   accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity  
   
empyema   accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity  
   
   
   
hemothorax   blood in the pleural cavity  
   
pleuritis   inflammation of the pleura  
   
   
   
pneumoconiosis   chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts, such as coal, asbestos (asbestosis), or silicone (silicosis) (conio = dust)  
   
pneumonia   inflammation in the lung resulting from infection by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites or from aspiration of chemicals  
   
Pneumocystis pneumonia   pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis carinii organism, a common opportunistic infection in those who are positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)  
   
pneumothorax   air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall  
   
pneumohemothorax   air and blood in the pleural cavity  
   
pneumonitis   inflammation of the lung, often caused by hypersensitivity to chemicals or dusts  
   
pulmonary embolism (PE)   occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot  
   
pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)   disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs; characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions (caseous necrosis)  
   
sinusitis   inflammation of the sinuses  
   
sleep apnea   periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often resulting in snoring  
   
tonsillitis   acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils  
   
upper respiratory infection (URI)   infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi  
asthma   panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucous membrane; characterized by paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough  
   
atelectasis   collapse of lung tissue (alveoli) (atele = imperfect; -ectasis = expansion or dilation)  
   
bronchiectasis   abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus  
   
bronchitis   inflammation of the bronchi  
   
bronchogenic carcinoma   lung cancer; cancer originating in the bronchi  
   
bronchospasm   constriction of bronchi caused by spasm (involuntary contraction) of the peribronchial smooth muscle  
   
emphysema   obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air and destructive changes in their walls, resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange (emphysan = to inflate)  
   
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)   permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema  
   
cystic fibrosis   inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous (sticky) mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infecti  
   
laryngitis   inflammation of the larynx  
   
laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)   inflammation of the upper airways with swelling; creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct “seal bark” cough  
   
   
   
laryngospasm   spasm of the laryngeal muscles, causing a constriction  
   
nasal polyposis   presence of numerous polyps in the nose (a polyp is a tumor on a stalk)  
   
pharyngitis   inflammation of the pharynx  
   
pleural effusion   accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity  
   
empyema   accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity  
   
   
   
hemothorax   blood in the pleural cavity  
   
pleuritis   inflammation of the pleura  
   
   
   
pneumoconiosis   chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts, such as coal, asbestos (asbestosis), or silicone (silicosis) (conio = dust)  
   
pneumonia   inflammation in the lung resulting from infection by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites or from aspiration of chemicals  
   
Pneumocystis pneumonia   pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis carinii organism, a common opportunistic infection in those who are positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)  
   
pneumothorax   air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall  
   
pneumohemothorax   air and blood in the pleural cavity  
   
pneumonitis   inflammation of the lung, often caused by hypersensitivity to chemicals or dusts  
   
pulmonary embolism (PE)   occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot  
   
pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)   disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs; characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions (caseous necrosis)  
   
sinusitis   inflammation of the sinuses  
   
sleep apnea   periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often resulting in snoring  
   
tonsillitis   acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils  
   
upper respiratory infection (URI)   infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi  
asthma   panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucous membrane; characterized by paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough  
   
atelectasis   collapse of lung tissue (alveoli) (atele = imperfect; -ectasis = expansion or dilation)  
   
bronchiectasis   abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus  
   
bronchitis   inflammation of the bronchi  
   
bronchogenic carcinoma   lung cancer; cancer originating in the bronchi  
   
bronchospasm   constriction of bronchi caused by spasm (involuntary contraction) of the peribronchial smooth muscle  
   
emphysema   obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air and destructive changes in their walls, resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange (emphysan = to inflate)  
   
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)   permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema  
   
cystic fibrosis   inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous (sticky) mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infecti  
   
laryngitis   inflammation of the larynx  
   
laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)   inflammation of the upper airways with swelling; creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct “seal bark” cough  
   
   
   
laryngospasm   spasm of the laryngeal muscles, causing a constriction  
   
nasal polyposis   presence of numerous polyps in the nose (a polyp is a tumor on a stalk)  
   
pharyngitis   inflammation of the pharynx  
   
pleural effusion   accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity  
   
empyema   accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity  
   
   
   
hemothorax   blood in the pleural cavity  
   
pleuritis   inflammation of the pleura  
   
   
   
pneumoconiosis   chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts, such as coal, asbestos (asbestosis), or silicone (silicosis) (conio = dust)  
   
pneumonia   inflammation in the lung resulting from infection by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites or from aspiration of chemicals  
   
Pneumocystis pneumonia   pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis carinii organism, a common opportunistic infection in those who are positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)  
   
pneumothorax   air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall  
   
pneumohemothorax   air and blood in the pleural cavity  
   
pneumonitis   inflammation of the lung, often caused by hypersensitivity to chemicals or dusts  
   
pulmonary embolism (PE)   occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot  
   
pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)   disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs; characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions (caseous necrosis)  
   
sinusitis   inflammation of the sinuses  
   
sleep apnea   periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often resulting in snoring  
   
tonsillitis   acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils  
   
upper respiratory infection (URI)   infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi  


   






 
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