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anabolic   increase in muscle mass  
androgenic   masculinizing effect  
biosynthesis of testosterone   begins in adrenal cortex. continues with testicular leydig cells or ovaries.  
testosterone in men   95% made in testicular leydig cells, the rest in adrenal cortex. [300-1000ng/dl]  
testosterone in women   major production in adrenal cortex, with a little being made in the ovaries. [15-65ng/dl]  
testosterone in young   rapid increase for boys at age 10-13  
negative side effects of testosterone   gynecomastia, hirsutism, clitoral enlargement...  
negative feedback loop and testosterone   shuts down endogenous production. can cause testicular shrinkage  
physiologic role of growth hormone   linear growth in children, promotes anabolic metabolism, alters body composition, synthesis and release of IGF-1  
prohormone   precursor to hormone. weaker.  
caffeine   most readily available and used psychoactive drug on the planet. bitter, white crystalline powder. synthesized from plants. stimulated the CNS, not as strongly as amphetamines  
how caffeine works   stimulates CNS by binding to receptor in place of adenosine. this delays the feeling of fatigue that would occur if adenosine bound to receptor  
half-life of caffeine   3 to 6 hours. 5 hour energy  
caffeine effect on endurance activities   depends on study. one group says it helps metabolize fat for energy  
caffeine effect on resistance activities   depends on study.  
dose response of caffeine   most studies show an effect of 5 to 6 mg/kg BW  
side effects of caffeine use   dependency, insomnia, nervousness, headache, tachycardia, nausea  
creatine   a naturally occuring acid. 95% is stored in the muscle  
role of creatine   part of the PCr fuel system  
endogenous sources of creatine   kidneys. from methylation of guanidinoacetate  
exogenous sources of creatine   primarily in meat, including fish  
effect of creatine during exercise   helps convert ADP to ATP  
responders and non-responders to creatine supplementation   usually responders had a high initial muscle creatine content  
loading phase of creatine   week-long phase  
differences in muscle fiber type in response to creatine supplementation   type 2 may respond better  
resistance or explosive activities and creatine supplementation   pretty good evidence that it helps  
aerobic activities and creatine supplementation   possible benefits, but inconclusive  
scientifically proven drawbacks to creatine supplementation   none yet  
gender differences with creatine supplementation   both respond  
beta alanine   non-essential amino acid synthesized in the liver; used in muscle cells to synthesize carnosine  
beta alanine sources   protein containing foods (chicken, turkey, beef, fish)  
mechanism that makes beta alanine effective   muscle buffering capacity of carnosine  
muscle carnosine   synthesized from beta alanine to buffer hydrogen ions during exercise  
effect of beta alanine supplementation on carnosine levels   increases  
side effects of beta alanine supplementation   parasthesia  
is beta alanine anabolic   no  
does type of exercise influence muscle carnosine content   no but supplementation during training does  
minimum level of beta alanine that must be ingested for effectiveness   not defined yet  
does beta alanine supplementation help performance in older adults   yes  
does beta alanine help - aerobic training   for the most part, especially for exercise between 60 and 240 seconds  
does beta alanine help - resistance training   unsure - maybe  
HMB   amino acid metabolite of leucine  
sources of HMB   naturally in muscle cells; food - milk, avocado, citrus fruit, fish  
how does HMB work   helps combat protein breakdown, helps in muscle repair; may have to build up some to get effects  
HMB and muscle-wasting diseases   has been used as treatment; ie with ALS  
HMB side effects   none to date  
HMB benefits   helps strengthen muscle cell membranes, modulates protein degradation, up-regulates protein synthesis, increases fat oxidation  
HMB and aerobic exercise   probably helps; may reduce muscle damage  
HMB and resistance exercise   inconclusive on results; may work better in untrained athletes because they have more muscle damage. probably works to reduce muscle damage  
exercise order for resistance training   power, other core, assistance exercises  
pre-exhaustion   "reverse" exercise arrangement wherein athlete purposefully fatigues a large muscle group as a result of performance of a single joint exercise prior to a multijoint exercise involving the same muscle  
circuit training   alternated upper and lower body exercises with minimal rest periods  
push-pull   alternates pushing exercises (ie bench press, shoulder press, triceps extension) with pulling exercises (ie lat pulldown, bent-over row, biceps curl); a method of improving recovery and recruitment between exercises  
supersets   involves two sequentially performed exercises that stress two opposing muscles or muscle areas  
compound sets   involves sequentially performing two different exercises for the same muscle group  
strength - load, repetitions, rest   >85, <6, 2-5 min  
power (single effort)- load, repetitions, rest   80-90, 1-2, 2-5 min  
power (multiple effort)- load, repetitions, rest   75-85, 3-5, 2-5 min  
hypertrophy - load, repetitions, rest   67-85, 6-12, 30s-1.5 min  
endurance - load, repetitions, rest   <67, >12, <30s  
benefits of aerobic training   increase in VO2max, increased capillary density, increased mitochondria, increased cardiac contractile strength, increased stroke volume, reduced resting heart rate, decreased body fat, increased HDL/decreased LDL  
ACSM recommendation for aerobic training   150 minutes per week  
how is energy produced   in mitochondria, Krebs cycle with carbs or fat (OP) aerobically. PCr or glycolysis anaerobically  
hyponatremia   problem when overhydrating  
HIIT   repeated short-to-long bouts of rather high intensity exercise interspersed with revovery periods  
benefits of HIIT   increase in blood and plasma volume, blood flow to muscles/capillaries density, oxidative enzymes; decrease in HR, glycogen usage, glucose; less time commitment  
drawbacks of HIIT   higher intensity; usually can't do for an extended period of time (months)  
effect of HIIT on VO2max   usually helps  
effect of HIIT on body mass, fat mass, etc   burn faster, longer because body is put in repair state  
what populations has HIIT been successful in   college, middle-aged, cardio pts in clinical setting  
benefits of ECPs   different workout routine, functional fitness, similar benefits as traditional, camraderie  
drawbacks of ECPs   increased risk of injury (especially if unsupervised), high-intensity, need experience in multijoint movements or close supervision  
who can benefit from ECPs   military, police, firemen  
who can get hurt using ECPs   anyone. risk of SCT, rhabdomyolysis. untrained  
rhabdomyolysis definition   the breakdown of muscle fibers that leads to the release of muscle fiber contents (myoglobin) into the bloodstream. harmful to the kidneys  
causes of rhabdomyolysis   severe exertion such as excessive exercises or marathon running  
symptoms of rhabdomyolysis   abnormal urine color (dark, red, cocoa cola), decreased urine production, general weakness, muscle stiffness or aching (myalgia), muscle tenderness, weakness of fatigued muscles, fatigue, joint pain, seizures, unintentional weight gain  
prevention of rhabdomyolysis   drink plenty of fluids after strenuous exercise or any event that may have caused muscle damage  
treatment of rhabdomyolysis   fluids with bicarbonate, medicines with a diuretic or bicarbonate. depends on extent of kidney damage  
sickle cell disease definition   a group of disorders that affects hemoglobin, the molecule found in RBCs that delivers O2 throughout the body  
sickle cell trait definition   only carry one sickle gene. won't develop the disease, usually won't feel sick  
sickle cell anemia definition   have abnormal hemoglobin S  
complications from SCT   urinary tract infection, fatal exertional heat illness, enlarged or hemorrhaging spleen, complication to the lungs  
symptoms of SCT   low number of RBCs, repeated infections, periodic episodes of pain  
precautions in training people with SCT   build up slowly in training with paced progressions, allowing longer periods of rest and recovery between repetitions; exclusion from performance tests. emphasize hydration. control asthma  
treatment of SCT   check vital signs, administer high-flow oxygen, cool athlete if necessary  
benefits of minimalist/barefoot running   movement to a mid to forefoot strike reduces stress on knee, quicker cadence (shorter stance phase), shift of GRF from knee to ankle  
drawbacks to minimalist/barefoot running   very thin or no soles, GRFs closer to ankle can cause achilles and ankle issues, increased stress fractures of lower leg, calf fatigues and become rear foot striker (increase stress on knee)  
transition from regular to minimalist/barefoot running   don't run more than a mile of any run barefoot in the first week. increase the distance being run barefoot incrementally at no more than 10% per week. recommended to use a 8 to 10 week program  
landing patterns   RFS GRF peaks at initial strike and is absorbed at knee. BF, minimalist land at mid to forefoot  
underlying theory behind altitude training   increased RBC production  
physiologic response to altitude training   body senses lower barometric pressure, increases breathing rate and erytrhopoetin release (increases RBC).  
response for aerobic athlete   run faster at altitude  
overtraining at altitude   problems trying to maintain same pace during initial month at altitude  
live high train high altitude training theory   get aerobic/EPO benefits, but initially harder to train  
altitude training technology   tents, rooms, apartments that contain reduced oxygen percentage in air, can be adjusted to stimulate various altitudes  
undertraining at altitude   run at same effort, actually running at a lower speed  
live high train low altitude training theory   get benefits of altitude, easier to train  
live low train high altitude training theory   not recommmended. don't receive benefits to RBC  
caution of going to altitude   dehydration threat  
speed at altitude   less drag. faster sprinting possible, baseball goes further when hit.  
erythropoietin development   produced in the kidneys; helps RBCs mature  
natural trigger of enhanced EPO production   hypoxia  
who was exogenous EPO originally developed to help   cancer and kidney patients  
test for EPO   Hct (%RBC). normal 40-45%. high % is dangerous for cardiovascular  
female athlete triad components   disordered eating, amenorrhea, osteoporosis  
disordered eating lowers energy availability impacting   cellular maintenance, thermoregulation, growth, reproduction  
energy availability and bone health, direct   stimulates production of hormones that promote bone formation  
energy availability and bone health, indirect   preserves eumenorrhea and estrogen production that restrains bone resorption (body looking for calcium)  
amenorrhea, bones   stress fracture is 2-4 times greater  
medical complications of female athlete triad   cardiovascular, endocrine, reproductive, skeletal, gastrointestinal, renal, CNS  
prevalence of female athlete triad   studies are inconclusive  


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