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Chapter 3&4 Vocab

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Culture   The way of life that distinguishes a people, for example, government, language, religion, customs, and beliefs.  
Population Density   the average number of people living in a given area.  
Birthrate   the number of live births each year per 1000 people.  
Immigrant   a person who moves into a country.  
Emigrant   a person who leaves a country to go elsewhere.  
Urbanization   the growth of city populations.  
Rural   of, or characteristics of,the countryside.  
Cultural Hearth   A place in which important ideas begin and thereafter spread to surrounding cultures.  
Cultural Convergnece   the contact and interaction of one culture with another.  
Diffusion   the process by which a cultual element is transmitted form one group or individual to another.  
Cultural Divergence   the restriction of a culture from outside influences.  
Sovereignty   a countries freedom and power to decide on policies and acions  
unitary system   a system of government in which one central government holds most of the political power.  
federation   a government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments.  
confederation   a system of government in which individual political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power to a central government.  
authoritarian   descriptive of a system of government in which the leaders hold all political power  
dictatorship   a system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person.  
totaliarianism   a system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society.  
monarchy   a system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch- a king queen shah or sultan- whose position is usually inherited.  
democracy   a system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government policy.  
traditional economy   an economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use.  
market economy   an economic system in which decisions about production price and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand  
command economy   an economic system that is controlled by a single central government.  
Natural Resource   A material in the natural environment that people value and sue to satisfy their needs  
Renewable Resource   A natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used.  
Nonrenewable Resource   A natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used.  
Fossil Fuel   any one of several nonrenewable mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuel.  
Nuclear Energy   A type of energy produced by fission- the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor, releasing stored energy.  
Water Power   Energy produced form falling water to move machinery or generate electricity.  
Geothermal Energy   Energy produced from the earths intense interior.  
Solar Energy   Energy produced by the sun.  
Primary Economic Activity   an economic activiyy that takes or uses natural ressources directly, such as fishing or mining.  
Subsistence Farming   farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village.  
Commercial Farming   the raising of crops and livestock for sale in markets.  
Secondary Economic Activity   an economic activity in which people use raw materilas to produce or maufacture new products of greater value.  
Cottage Industry   a small scale manufacturing operation using little technology often located in or near peoples homes  
Commercial Industry   a large sscale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produces large quantities of goods.  
tertiary Economic Activity   an economic activity in whic people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that surve others; service industry  
Quaternary Economic Activity   an economic activity that focuses on the acquisition, processing, and sharing of information, such as education or research.  
Export   an item that is sent out of the country for sale.  
Import   an item that is brought into a country.  


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