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Valhalla High School Bentley AP World Ch. 7

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Time Period
Cyrus   Cyrus also known as Cyrus the Shepard became king of the Persian tribes in 558 B.C.   Cyrus's conquests laid the foundation of the Achaemenid empire and within twenty years he went from being a minor regional king to the ruler of an empire that went from India to the borders of Egypt.   1   558-530 B.C.   7   From India to Egypt  
Darius   A kinsman of Cyrus, extended the empire east and west from the Indus River to the Aegean Sea.   Darius was the greatest emperor of the Achaemenid empire.   1   521-486 B.C.   7   Indus River Valley to Aegean Sea  
Medes   Distant cousins of the Aryans, the Medes spoke Indo-European languages and migrated from central Asia to Persia during 1000 B.C.   Had horse riding skills like the steppe peoples, and occasionaly invaded the wealthy areas of Mesopotamia.   1   1000 B.C.-6th C. B.C.   7   Central Asia to Persia  
Persepolis   New capital of the Achamenid empire built by Darius.   Served as monument and administrative centre for the Persian empire.   1   520-330 B.C.   7   near Pasargadae  
Satrapies   Administrative and taxation districts governed by satraps.   Satraps had the possibility to ally with other groups and threaten the Achaeenid empire.   1   6th C. B.C.   7   Indus River to Aegean Sea  
standardized coins   Darius established the standardized coins in order to speed up the payment of taxes.   Standardized coins contributed to the developement of trade throughout the Achaemenid empire.   1   520 B.C.-21st C. A.D.   7   Indus River to Aegean Sea  
Xerxes   Xerxes was Darius's succesor, who ended the policy of toleration, and decided to impose his own values to the regions he conquered.   Caused the empire to collapse later, because of conflicts caused after he expelled the policy of toleration.   1   486-465 B.C.   7   Persia  
qanat   underground canals   Enhanced agricultural production and increased population growth rate   1   500's B.C.   7   Persia  
Zarathustra   Founder of Zoroastrianism. Convinced that supreme god "Ahura Mazda" had chosen him to be his prophet and spread his teachings.   Teachings allowed people to enjoy the fruits of life, unlike other religions of the time. They had to be enjoyed in moderation however, to comply with Zoroastrian teachings.   1   7th and 6th century B.C.E   7   Persia  
The Gathas   Various hymns that Zathustra composed in honor of various deities.   Provided historians with accounts of the existence and teachings of the Zoroastrian faith.   1   7th century B.C.E   7   Persia  
Zoroastrianism   Religion founded by Zarathustra that emphasized the duality of good and evil, and the role of individuals determining their own fate.   Offered salvation for honest moral individuals who followed the Zoroastrian teachings and prevailed against the evils of the Angra Mazda.   1   7th century B.C.E   7   Persia  
Slaves   Generally free subjects who accumulated debt that they could not repay.   Provided much of the manual labor for the large-scale construction projects.   1   Late 6th century B.C.E   7   Persia  
Gimillu   Famous Persian slave that cheated the system and embezzled funds and cheated his masters but always seemed to avoid his punishment.   Shows that slaves can be intelligent and that slaves could possess hidden talents.   1   Mid 6th century B.C.E   7   Persia  
Persian Royal Road   Newly constructed road that opened up trade in Persia.   Opened up and promoted trade in the Persian region, which helped develop the Persian society.   1   Late 6th century B.C.E   7   Persia  
Haoma   Hallucinogenic agent used by priests during religious sacrifices.   Showed how extreme and prominent religion was in the Persian society.   1   Mid 6th century B.C.E.   7   Persia  
Ahura Mazda   Supreme god of Zaoroastrianism.   Promised to bring salvation to those who were noble, and was a positive god in the Zoroastrian faith.   1   7th century B.C.E   7   Persia  
Angra Mainyu   Principle god of evil in the Zoroastrian faith.   Illustrated the stressed contrast between good and evil in the Zoroastrian faith.   1   7th century B.C.E   7   Persia  
Alexander of Macedon   Also known as Alexander the Great invaded Persia in 334 B.C. and destroyed the Achaemenid empire.   He displayed himself as the legitimate successor of the Achaemenid empire in Persia and Egypt.   1   334-323 B.C.   7   Persia  
Seleucids   One of the 3 realms Alexander's empire was split into. Founded by Selecus.   Retained all of the Achaemenid administrative system, taxation, roads, and postal service.   1   305-83 B.C.   7   Persia  
Parthians   One of the 3 realms Alexander's empire was split into. Seleucids enemies.   Parthian Empires greatest emperor Mithradates the first, extended the empire all the way to the region of Mesopotamia.   1   300's B.C.-3rd C C.E.   7   Between India and Mediterranean  
Sasanids   One of the 3 realms Alexander's empire was split into. Toppled the Parthians in 224 C.E.   Introduced cultivation of sugar, cotton, rice, eggs, citrus, and eggplant to Iran.   1   224-651 C.E.   7   Parthia to Mesopotamia  


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