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7-26 abdominal 2

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What happens if you lay down after you eat?   Food won't peristalse down becasue it doesn't have skeletal muscle  
Explain the steps to get a esophageal hernia   Weakness in diaphragm, increased abdominal pressure, esophagus or stomach herniates  
Explain referred pain   Inflammation irritates spinal nerves so other organs are irritated  
Where would referred pain from the diaphgram and liver?   Right shoulder  
Where would referred pain from the liver and kidney be?   Lower back  
What quadrant is the spleen found in?   Upper left  
What are the developmental functions and other functions of the spleen?   Hematopoietic center during development; breaks down and recylces damaged RBCs to make more hemoglobin; blood reservoir; some immune abilities  
What organ is usually removed instead of repaired?   Spleen  
What organs is the spleen anterior and deep to?   Deep to stomach; anterior to kidney  
What is the red and white pulp of the spleen?   Where blood goes through  
What type of organ is the pancreas?   Endocrine and exocrine  
What does the endocrine portion of the pancreas do?   Secretes contents (insulin and glucagon) directly into the blood stream  
What does the exocrine portion of the pancreas do?   Secretes pancreatic juices through ducts  
What is the head of the pancreas anchored by?   Duodenum  
What does the pancreatic duct join with to form the hepato-pancreatic ampulla?   Bile duct  
Where does the ampulla empty into and through what lip?   Duodenum; papilla  
What are the pancreatic islets?   Cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin and glucagon (endocrine portion)  
Where are the pancreatic juices secreted and what stimulates the secretion?   Secreted into duodenum; stimulated by acidity of food  
Explain pancreatic cancer   Pancreatic juices get blocked because of duct problem; pancreas breaks down and digests aorta and SMA  
What are the branches of the gastroduodenal artery that supply the pancreas?   Posterior superior and anterior superior pancreaticoduodnal arteries  
What are the branches of the superior mesenteric artery that supply the pancreas?   Posterior inferior and anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries  
What does the inferior mesenteric vein drain and where does it drain into?   Left half of large intestine and drains into splenic  
What does the superior mesenteric vein drain?   Small intestine and right half of large intestine  
What is the largest gland in the body?   Liver  
What does the liver absorb?   Everything but fats; all other nutrients  
What are the four lobs of the liver?   Right, left, caudate, quadrate  
What quadrant is the liver in?   Upper right  
What are the two regions the liver is mostly in and the other two it can be in?   Right hypochondriac region and epigastric region; can be in right flank region and left hypochondriac region  
What muscle is the liver attached to?   Diaphragm  
What ligament divides the liver into right and left lobs?   Falciform ligament  
What is the liver covered by?   Visceral peritoneum  
What does the falciform ligament anchor the liver to?   Anterior abdominal wall  
Where is the round ligament of the liver found?   Inferior aspect of the liver  
What is found in the round ligament of the liver?   Umbilical veins  
What areas of the liver don't have visceral pertioneum? What do these areas have direct contact with?   Coronary ligament, left triangular ligament, upper part of the right lobe; diaphragm  
Where do the hepatic veins drain to?   IVC  
What are the two functional lobes of the liver?   Right and left (caudate and quadrate here)  
What happens during liver cirrhosis?   Toxins are ingested and liver can't break them down so hepatocytes are damaged and causes backup  
What is the ligamentum venosum?   Open duct to in fetal development to go to IVC  
What does the umbilical vein drain into?   Ligamentum venosum  
What does the hepatic portal vein drain?   All venous blood from digestive organs  
What kind of blood does the hepatic portal vein have?   Deoxygenated but nutrient rich  
What does the gallbladder do?   Stores and concentrates bile  
What is the cystic artery a branch of?   Right hepatic artery  
What are the steps for bile drainage   Liver creates bile, secretes bile through hepatic ducts (R/L and common), hepatic ducts join with cystic duct, forms bile duct, joins with pancreatic duct, empties into major duodenal papilla into duodenum  
What do hepatocytes produce and where does it drain into?   Produces bile; drains to biliary system  
What is at each corner of a hepatocyte?   Triad- bile duct, hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery  
In hepatocytes, which directions do blood, bile, and lymph flow?   Blood goes inward, bile and lymph go outward  
What cells clean up debris?   Cooper cells  
What is the portal flow?   Blood comes into hepatic portal vein, goes through hepatocytes (filter nutrients and toxins), central vein- clean blood, IVC  
What do kidneys produce?   urine  
What do the kidneys remove, reabsorb, and excrete?   Remove excess water, reabsorb salt, excrete waste  
What structure does urine travel in from the kidney to the urinary bladder?   Ureter  
What secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine?   Suprarenal glands  
What kidney is lower and why?   Right; liver is in the way  
What renal vein is longer and why?   Left; has to go over the aorta  
What renal vein is longer?   Right  
What are kidneys surrounded in that blends in with the suprarenal glands?   Perirenal fat pad  
What are the right and left testicular arteries a branch of?   Aorta  
What does the right testicular vein drain into?   IVC  
What does the left testicular vein drain into?   Renal vein  
Are the renal arteries or veins anterior?   Veins  
What part of the kidneys is an extension of the cortex into the kidney?   Renal columns  
Where are nephrons at/where is urine produce?   Renal pyramids  


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