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Chemistry 050 Ch. 5 & 6

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Question
Answer
Becquerel   discovered radioactivity  
Rutherford   alpha particle experiment results in proposal of a heavy, dense atomic nucleus  
Chadwick   discovered the neutron, a particle w/ mass but no charge  
Thomson   experimentally showed the existance of the atom; also discovered proton are particles  
sub-atomic particles   neutron, proton, electron  
mass number   sum of protons & neutrons in the nucleus  
atomic number   number of protons in the nucleus  
isotopes   atoms of an element, having the same atomic number but different atomic masses  
nucleus   the central part of an atom that contains all its protons & neutrons. The nucleus is very dense & has a positive electrical charge  
electron   a particle w/ a negative electrical charge & a mass of 9.110x10(-28)g  
proton   a particle w/ actual mass of 1.673x10(-24). It's relative charge (+1) is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign, to the charge of the electron  
subatomic particles   particles found within the atom, mainly protons, neutrons, & electrons  
Michael Faraday   discovered the ions  
# of neutrons   mass number - atomic number  
AMU   atomic mass unit  
AMU   a unit of mass equal to one twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom  
atomic mass   the average relative mass of the isotopes of that element compared to the atomic mass of carbon-12 (exactly 12.0000...amu)  
Greek model of matter   4 elements-earth, air, water, fire  
neutral atom   contains the same number of protons & electrons  
law of definite composition   states that a compound always contains 2 or more elements chemically combined in a definite proportion by mass  
law of multiple proportions   states that atoms of 2 or more elements may combine in different ratios to produce more than one compound  
law (theory)   a summary of observed behavior  
model (theory)   an attempt to explain the observed behavior  
law   remains constant (don't undergo modifications)  
theories   (models) sometimes fail & are modified or discarded over time  
atom vs ion   atoms are the smallest particle of an element; ions are a positively or negatively charged atoms or group of atoms  
laughing gas   N2O  
Stock (nomenclature) System   a system that uses Roman numerals to name elements that form more than one type of cation. (For example Fe2+, iron(II); Fe3+, iron (III)  
cation   a postively charged ion  
anion   a negatively charge ion  
atomic number   determines the identity of an atom  
isotopes   an atom of an element that has the same atomic number but a different atomic mass. Since their atomic numbers are identical, isotopes vary only in the number of neutrons in the nucleus  
ion   a positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms  
binary compound   a compound composed of 2 different elements  
binary ionic compound   formed when a metal combines with a nonmetal  
binary ionic compound   metal loses one or more electrons to become a cation while the nonmetal gains one or more electrons to become an anion  
binary ionic compound   the cation is written first followed by the anion  
naming cations   the lower charge cation has the -ous ending  
naming cations   the higher charged cation has the -ic ending  
polyatomic ions   an ion that contains 2 or more elements (ex.hydroxide OH-)  
naming acids   1st look at the polyatomic ion following the hydrogen; 2nd the polyatomic ion is modified by (1) -ate changes to an -ic ending; (2) -ite changes to an -ous ending  
naming acids   the compound with the -ic ending contains more oxygen than the one with the -ous ending  
diatomic molecules   two atoms bonded together to form a molecule  
diatomic elements   H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, & I2  
commonly polyatomic   S8 (sulfur) & P4 (phosporus)  
cations   named the same as their parent atoms (ex. atom-potassium K, Ion-potassium ion K+)  
cation   chemical equation ex. Mg--> Mg2+ + 2e-  
cation   any neutral atom that loses an electron  
anion   any neutral atom that gains an electron  
anion   O+2e- --> O2-  
to name an anion   consisting of only one element, use the stem of the parent element name & change the ending to -ide (ex. flourine to flouride ion)  
ions   most often formed when a metal combines w/ nonmetals  
binary compounds   contain only 2 different elements  
binary compounds   many are formed when metal combines w/ nonmetal to form binary ionic compoun  
binary compounds   the metal loses one or more electrons to become an cation while the nonmetal gains one or more electrons to become an anion  
binary compounds   the cation is written first in the formula, followed by the anion  
metal ions   when it only has 2 cation types, the name of the metal is modified w/ the suffixes -ous & -ic  
metal ions   the lower charge cation is given the -ous ending, & the higher one, the -ic ending  
metal ions   naming ex. FeCl2- ferrous chloride (fe2+ lower charge cation)  
metal ions   naming ex. FeCl3-ferric chloride(Fe3+ higher charge cation)  
binary compounds containing 2 nonmetals   compounds between nonmetals are molecular, not ionic  
NO-/3   Nitrate  
NO-/2   Nitrite  
PO3-/4   Phospate  
SO2-/4   Sulfate  
SO2-/3   Sulfite  
OH-   Hydroxide  
CN-   Cyanide  
NH+/4   Ammonium (cation)  
HCO-/3   Hydrogen Carbonate  
HSO-/4   Hydrogen Sulfate  
BrO-/3   Bromate  
CO2-/3   Carbonate  
ClO-/3   Chlorate  
CrO2-/4   Chromate  
MnO-/4   Permanganate  
ClO-   hypochlorite  
ClO-/2   chlorite  
ClO-/3   chlorate  
ClO-/4   perchlorate  
HClO   hypochlorous acid  
HClO2   chlorous acid  
HClO3   chloric acid  
HClO4   perchloric acid  
KHSO4   potassium hydrogen sulfate  
Ca(HSO3)2   calcium hydrogen sulfite  
HH4HS   ammonium hydrogen sulfide  
MgNH4PO4   Magnesium ammonium phosphate  
NaH2PO4   sodium dihydrogen phosphate  
Na2HPO4   sodium hydrogen phosphate  
KHC2O4   potassium hydrogen oxalate  
KAl(SO4)2   potassium aluminum sulfate  
Al(HCO3)3   aluminum hydrogen carbonate  
H2SO4   sulfuric acidH2SO3  
H2SO3   sulfurous acid  
HNO3   Nitric acid  
HNO2   nitrous acid  
H2CO3   carbonic acid  
H3BO3   boric acid  
H3PO4   phosphoric acid  
H3PO3   phosphorous acid  
HIO3   iodic acid  
HC2H3O2   acetic acid  
H2C2O4   oxalic acid  
HBrO3   bromic acid  
BO3-/3   borate ion  
PO3-/3   phospite ion  
IO-/3   iodate ion  
C2H3O-/2   acetate ion  
C2O2-/4   oxalate ion  
BrO-/3   bromate ion  


   






 
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