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FBSF Chapter 8 The Integumentary System

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The integumentary system is made up of   1. Skin 2. Hair 3. Nails 4. Sebaceous glands(sebum-oil) 5. Cerumenous glands(cerumen-earwax) 6. Sudoriferous glands(sweat)  
The skin:   1.Is flexible 2.Is waterproof 3.Protects the body from UltraViolet (UV)light 4.Protects the body from many chemicals & microbes 5.Regulates body temperature(evaporation)  
The outermost layer of skin is called the   epidermis (epi-above//dermi-skin)  
The epidermis is composed of   epithelial cells  
Epithelia cells reproduce by   mitosis(30,000/day)(cells duplicate themselves)  
Newer epithelial cells push upward where they slowly   necrose(die) this process is called keratinization (pushed from the bottom to top)  
These keratinized cells are constantly being   sloughed (400 lb of house dust by age 45)  
Skin sloughing (shedding) helps rid the body of   pathogens(disease producers)  
The second layer of the skin is called the   dermis AKA corium  
The dermis AKA (corium) consists of   connective tissue (collagenous & elastin fibers)  
The function of collagen is to   bind skin cells together  
Embedded in the dermis(corium) are   1. Blood vessels 2. Nerves 3. Lymph vessels 4. Hair follicles 5. Sebaceous glands(sebum-oil) 6. Sudoriferous glands(2-4 million sweat glands/cool body down)  
Sweat is released through ossa(plural)(os/opening) called   sudoriferous pores  
The last layer of the skin is called the   subcutaneous (subQ or subcu) AKA hypodermis  
The subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) consists mainly of   adipose tissue(fat)  
The subcutaneous tissue(hypodermis) attaches the   dermis(corium) to the underlying muscles  
The fibrous connective tissue of the body is called   fascia  
When skin is subjected to an excessive amount of abrasion or friction, a thickened area develops called a   callus(calluses)  
Skin pigmentation(color) is genetically determined by the amount of   melanin produced  
A genetic mutation causing an absence of melanin production is called   albinism  
Dilation of the blood vessels in the dermis(corium) causes   erythroderma AKA erythema AKA rubeosis  
Causes of erythema include   1.Pyrexia(fever) 2.HyperTensioN ((HTN) 3.Inflammation 4.Blushing  
A bluish discoloration of the skin caused by hypoxia or hypothermia(deficient Oxygen/O2 or body heat) is called   cyanosis(cyanotic)  
Excessive hemolysis(break-up) of erythrocytes or hyperbilirubinemia causes a yellowish orangish discoloration to the skin and/or sclerae(white part of each eye) called   xanthoderma or jaundice or icterus (kernicterus/newborn-neonate)  
Hair is a characteristic of all   mammals  
On humans, hair can be found on the entire body except for the   1.Palms 2.Soles 3.Glans penis  
Each hair is composed of   1. A shaft - visible portion of the hair 2. A root - is found in the epidermal tube 3. Follicle - is where mitosis occurs (hair grows/cell duplication)  
Attached to each hair follicle is an arrector pili muscle which causes the hair shaft to   "stand on it end" causing a "goose flesh" appearance when we get scared or cold  
Genetics will control   1.Hair color 2.Hair texture 3.Hair loss(alopecia)  
The visible part of a nail is called a   nail body  
The part of a nail that grows is called a   nail bed  
The base of a nail is covered by tissue called a   cuticle AKA eponychium  
Onychocryptosis is   an abnormal condition of an ingrown (hidden) nail  
Onychomycosis is   an abnormal condition of a nail(s) caused by a fungus  
Paronychia is   a condition of inflammation adjacent to a nail  
Cicatrix (cicatrices)   scar(s)  
keloid   an exaggerated or hypertrophied scar  
keloids are associated with   surgery & 3rd degree burns  
Ecchymosis(ecchymotic)   black & blue mark caused by bleeding under the skin AKA hematoma or contusion or bruise  
edema(edematous)   tissue swelling caused by an accumulation of fluid  
ulcer   an erosion (wearing away) of the skin or mucous membrane  
Decubitus ulcer is AKA   bedsore or pressure sore(ulcer)  
pitting edema   fluid accumulation where indentations occur after light palpation(touch)  
eschar(esharotic)   nectrotic tissue caused by a burn  
macule(macular)   flat usually erythematous skin lesion  
Decubitis ulcers commonly occur on bony prominences (pressure points) such as   1.coccyx(tailbone) 2.Calcanei(heel bones) 3.Olecranon(Holy crayons)(elbows) 4.Scapulae(shoulder bone) 5.Occipital bone(posterior base of the cranium/skull) 6.Pelvis(ilia/hip or ischia/sit on)  
papule(papular)   a raised skin lesion <1cm..less than  
nodule(nodular)   a raised skin lesion >1cm..greater than  
nevus(nevil)   mole(s) or birthmark(s)  
petechia(e)   pinpoint skin hemorrhage(s)  
purpura   a combination of ecchymosis/back & blue marks and petechiae/pinpoint skin hemorrhage  
pustule(pustular)   a papule filled with pus <1cm..less than  
abscess(abcesses)   a collection of pus >1cm..greater than  
verruca(e)   warts  
pallor   paleness  
vesicle   a raised lesion filled with a clear liquid AKA a blister or bulla(>1cm=greater than) or bleb(<1cm=Less than)  
abrasion   mechanical superficial damage to the skin AKA scrape  
excoriation   chemical superficial damage to the skin such as "diaper rash"  
cellulitis(dermatitis)   inflammation of skin cells  
urticaria   hives AKA wheals  
Urticaria is an indication of an   allergic reaction  
cyst   a thickening or lump  
furuncle   an infection of a hair follicle and adjacent tissue AKA a boil  
carbuncle(car load)   a cluster of furuncles  
gangrene(ganrenous)   putrefaction(rot) caused by tissue necrosis and microbial proliferation  
laceration   tissue that is cut, torn or ripped  
avulsion   tearing any part of the body away from the whole  
xeroderma   dry skin  
ichthyosis   dry scaly skin  
crustation(s)   scab(s)  
vitiligo(Michael Jackson)   localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by mild-white patches  


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