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Intro to Ethics 1

Part 1

Validity conclusion follows from premises
Soundness All premises true and must be valid
State of Nature How philosophers think persons would naturally behave if there were no government threatening to punish them
Cultural differences Argument 1. Different societies have different moral codes 2. Moral code determines what is right within that society. 3. No objective standard can be used to judge one's societal code as better than another. 4.Therefor no objective moral truth can be determin
Objections to Cultural differences Argument An objection to this argument can be generated by substituting something for ‘moral beliefs’, such as ‘beliefs about whether the world is flat or round'. If people disagreed about these things, would we conclude that cultural relativism is true
Moral Skepticism The view that their is no such thing as objective moral truth.
Cultural Relativism Morality is relative to a given culture. The moral code of a society is what determines what is right or wrong in that society.
Principle of Tolerance Societies and individuals should not interfere with or impose there values on other member of other societies.
Divine Command Theory Things are morally good or bad or morally obligatory, permissible or prohibited, solely because of God’s will and commands.
Socrates' question that raised the dilemma for divine command theory. Is Conduct right because God commands it OR Does god command it because it's Right
Natural Law Theory Laws of self preservation, Seek peace and defend ourselfs
Rachels' Criticism of natural law theory It's incompatible with modern science it attempts to derive "ought's from Is's". ex.People are beneficent therefor people ought to be beneficent It is invalid.
Basic Pro-Life argument 1.it is wrong to kill an innocent human being 2.Human fetuses are innocent human beings. 3.Therefor it is wrong to kill a human fetus
Marquis argument for a pro-life position Premises 1.It is presumptive wrong to deprive a being of his or her future Premises 2. Aborting a fetus deprives it of it's future (Conclusion)Aborting a fetus is Presumptively wrong
Law of nature Rule or Reason by which man is forbidden to do something that has been proven to be destructive to his life
Right of Nature Everyman has the right to do Everything, even to one another's body
The Prisoner's dilemma A situation when people both individually and in a group interest are affected by what they do so that everyone is worse off individually and better off as a group.
What is rational for an individual to do in a prisoner's dilemma the rational action of each player is to NOT Cooperate. -based on self interest.
social contract theory morality consists in the set of rules, governing behavior that rational people will accept, on the condition that others accept it as well.
Advantages of the social contract theory -morally binding rules are on that facilitate harmonious social living -impartiality -reciprocity(response of individuals toward the action of others.
Objections to the social contract theory We should not be expected to hold up our ancestors contract since we did not agree to them. Acceptance of a rule biased on others agreeing to them.
Euthyphro Dilemma If moral good acts are willed by God because they are morally good, then they must be morally good prior to and so independently of God’s will.
the philosophical liberal view about the validity and soundness of the basic pro-life argument We can not distinguish two different meanings of "human being": (i) member of the species homo sapiens (ii) person\human being in the moral sense implies that infants are not human beings
Hobbes account of the causes of quarrel (or conflict) in the state of nature 1.1. Competition (desiring the same thing, which not both can have 2.2. Diffidence (i.e. fearful distrust of one another) 3.3. Glory (e.g., celebrity, honor)
Provability Arguement If there were objective moral truth we should be able to prove it. Since we can prove it
Thomson's examples and what they are supposed to show on the baisc-prolife arguement 1.feminist argument that the woman's right to choose (sometimes) outweighs the fetus's right to life 2.voilinist -
Created by: Dyslexic_jayme