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Rad Prot Unit 2

Sherer- Ch. 4-Radiation Monitoring

Provides an indication of the working habits and working conditions of diagnostic imaging personnel Personnel Dosimeter
Serves as a basis for comparison w/ remaining badges after they have been returned for processing Control Badge
Lists the deep, eye, and shallow occupational exposures of each person in a health care facility as measured by the exposed monitor. Personnel Monitoring Report
Radiographic film in a film badge that is sensitive to doses ranging from .1mSv (10mrem) to as hi as 5000mSv Radiation Dosimetry Film
Economical device that records whole-body radiation exposure accumulated at a low rate over a long time Film Badge
Gas-filled radiation detectors that detect the presence of radiation and give a reasonably accurate measurement of exposure. Field Radiation Survey Instruments
Device for monitoring occupational exposure that contains an aluminum oxide (Al2O3) detector OSL (Optical Stimulated Luminescence)
Worn by a pregnant radiographer to monitor the equivalent dose to the embryo-fetus Second Personnel Monitoring Device
Device with an audible system that alerts the operator to the presence of ionizing radiation Geiger-Muller Detector
These are generally used in labs to detect alpha & beta radiation & small amts of other types of low-level radioactive contamination Proportional Counter
The intensity of light transmitted thru a given area of the dosimetry film Optical Density
What is used to calibrate radiographic & fluoroscopic units? Ionizing chamber connected to an electrometer
Annual EfD limit of radiation workers in mSv and rem: 50mSv ; 5 rem
A graphical plot that domonstrates the relationship of light output, or emitted thermoluminescence intensity, to temp variation Glow Curve
Keeping radiation to personnel as low as reasonably achievable ALARA
A weak long-lived radioisotope located on the external surface of a GM detector that is used to verify the daily consistency of the unit Check Source
Sensing material found in OSL Aluminum oxide detector
This is required whenever radiation workers are likely to risk receiving 10% or more of the annual EfD limit (50mSv or 5 rem) Exposure monitoring of personnel
An instrument that can be used to determine the amount of radiation to which a film badge dosimeter has been exposed Densitometer
This resembles an ordinary fountain pen but contains a thimble ionization chamber that measures radiation exposure Pocket Dosimeter
This measures the amount of ionizing radiation exposed to a TLD badge TLD Analyzer
This is an ionization chamber-type survey meter Cutie Pie
This contains LiF powder or chips, which function as a sensing material TLD
What is the sensing material found in TLD's? LiF (Lithium Fluoride)
What are the areas of diagnostic radiology that produce the highest occupational radiation exposure for diagnostic imaging personnel Fluoroscopy and Special Procedures
This is an extremity monitor worn by an imaging pro as a 2nd monitor when performing radiographic procedures that require the hands to be near the primary x-ray beam TLD Ring Badge
What is used to measure the visible light emitted by the sensing material contained in a TLD AFTER exposure to ionizing radiation and heating? Photomultiplier Tube
What is the most common type of personnel monitoring devices used today? OSL's
Radiation survey instruments measure the total quantity of electrical charge resulting from ionization of the gases and what? The rate the electrical charge is produced
Most institutions will issue personnel monitoring devices when personnel might receive what dosage in any one month? Give in mSv and mRem: .5 mSv and 50 mrem
List the 5 common characteristics of Personnel monitoring instruments: (CLADS) Cheap ; Lightweight Able 2 detect small & lg exposures reliably Durable for normal daily use Mechanical shock shouldn't affect performance
The head and neck area receives how much more exposure than the waist area? 10 - 20 times
Personnel monitoring instruments give what 2 types of information? Indication of working habits & conditions Measure exposure received by individual
List the 5 types of personnel monitoring instruments: (EFPOT) 1. Extremity dosimeter (TLC Ring Badge) 2. Film Badge 3. Pocket Dosimeter (Ionization chambers) 4. OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) 5. TLD (Thermoluminescence Dosimeter)
What decade did Film Badges come into use? 1940's
List the 3 parts to a film badge: Plastic film holder Assortment of metal filters Film packet
The plastic film holder in a film badge is made of what type of atomic # and why? Low Atomic # to filter out low energy x-ray and gamma photons
The filters of a film badge give what two things? Measurement of approximate energy reaching the badge and direction of the radiation
What type of film is used in a film badge? and what is the sensitivity range? Radiation-Dosimetry Film Range .1mSv (10mrem) to 5000mSv (500 rem)
A Densitometer measure what on the film? Optical Density
What information is contained in a Film Badge Report? Personal Data Type of Dosimeter Radiation Quality Dose Equivalent Data Cummulative Dose Equivalent Data
What is the 4 ADVANTAGES of a Film Badge? (RIPE) REASONABLY Accurate INEXPENSIVE PERMANENT Report EASY to handle
What are the 3 DISadvantages of a Film Badge? Should only be used for 1 month Sensitive to heat & humidity Accuracy is + or - 20%
What provides the best features of traditional film and thermoluminescent dosimeters while eliminating some of the disadvantages? OSL's
The readout of an OSL badge is known as what? Glow Curve
After an OSL is exposed to radiation it is scanned by a laser light. What will the badge do after being scanned? Emit a light proportional to the amount of radiation it received
What is the sensitivity level for an OSL Badge? For x- & gamma rays: 1 mRem at 5keV to 40MeV to 1000 rem.
What is the maximum and recommended time an OSL badge is worn? Recommended: 2 months Maximum: 1 year
What are the 2 types of Pocket Dosimeters? Self-Reading Non Self-Reading
What is the sensitivity range for Pocket Dosimeters? 0 to 200 mR
3 Advantages of Pocket Dosimeters? Immediate reading Easy to carry (very compact) Reasonably accurate & sensitive
3 Disadvantages to Pocket Dosimeters? Expensive Sensitive to mechanical Shock No permanent record (must be read daily)
What are the 2 types of crystals used in TLD's? LiF (Lithium Fluoride) CaF2:Mn (Manganes activated Calcium Fluoride)
Name the levels (inside to outside) within a crystal atom used in a TLD: Electron Shell Forbidden Zone Conduction Band
When Radiation hits the crystal in a TLD what happens to the electron? It travels to the Forbidden zone after ionization and then to the conduction band after the crystal is heated to emit light. Then it returns to their proper position.
TLD's have several advantages and only a few disadvantages. List the advantages: Crystal interacts w/ radiation the way human tissue does. Measure as low as 5mR Not affected by heat or humidity Can be worn up to 3 months More sensitive & accurate than a film badge
List the 2 disadvantages of TLD's: High initial cost Readouts must be carefully obtained (each time)or will be lost
List the 2 types of Field Survey Instruments: Gas filled Detectors Scintillation Detectors
3 types of Gas Filled Detectors: (PIG) Geiger-Muller Detectors Ionization Chambers Proportional Counters
Ideal Chamber Sensitivity means that an instrument can detect very _____ radiation intensities. A larger chamber is more or less sensitive? Low; More sensitive (more gas molecules)
Ideal Chamber Accuracy means how well the instrument can _______ and precisely __________ the intensity of a radiation field. Detect; Measure
Ideal Chamber accuracy is controlled by overall _______________. Design
This type of Ionization Chamber is popular in clinical radiology, used to calibrate x-ray machines and is accurate within +/- 20%: Cutie Pie
What is the radiation intensity range for the Cutie Pie? 1mR/hr to 1R/hr
The Geiger-Muller Dectector is used for contamination control in what setting? Nuclear Medicine and Portable Work
What type of response does the Geiger-Muller Detector have and what is the range? Audible Response; Limited to less than 100mR/hr
What type of setting and detection is the Proportional Counter used? Stationary Laboratories to detect small quantities of radioactivity.
In gas filled Detectors, the region whereby the voltage is so low that the electrons are not attracted to the central electrode and the ion pairs reunite, is which region? Recombination Region
In Gas Filled Detectors, the region whereby all electrons are attracted to the central electrode and the voltage ranges from 100-300 volts: (Cutie Pie operates in this region) Ion Chamber Region
The region after Ion Chamber region whereby as voltage is increased the electrons travel to the central electrode faster and produce more electrons per ionization (secondary electrons) Proportional Region
In an ideal chamber, _________ means how well the instrument can detect and precisely measure the intensity of a radiation field. This is also controlleby by its overall design. Accuracy
List the common requirements an Area Monitoring Device Should Possess. (STRALER Response AE) SIMPLE design; TISSUE equivalent; RELIABLE & ACCURATE; LIGHTWEIGHT; ECONOMICAL; RUGGED; RESPONSE independent of rad energy; ALL types or ionizing radiation; EQUALLY sensitive to radiation from all directions
An ideal Ionization chamber consists of a _________ chamber of gas and a central collecting __________ that collects the electrons. Cylindrical; Electrode
In the ionization chamber region, an avalanche of electrons are produced from a primary ion and a quenching agent must be added to help the atoms return to stability. Extremely sensitive-terrible accuracy. Geiger-Muller Region
Within the regions of operation for Ionization Chambers, what are the only USEABLE regions: 1. Ion Chamber Region 2. Proportional Region 3. Geiger-Muller Region
This ion chamber region has voltage so high that one ionization causes continuous stripping of atoms giving a continuous signal. Region of Continuous Discharge
List the Ionization Chamber regions in order: Recombination; Ion Chamber; Proportional; Geiger Muller; Continuous Discharge
The Field Survey Instrument devices used in Nuclear Medicine & CT with the basic principle: certain materials emit a proportional amount of light when struck by radiation. Scintillation Detectors
Scintillation Phosphors can be ________, ________ or solids Gases; Liquids
The Solid scintillation phospor: Thallium activated sodium iodide Thallium activated cesium iodide
The Scintillation Detector assembly contains crystals that are contained in a _________ seal because they are ____________ (absorp moisture) and emit light ___________. Hermetic; Hygroscopic; Isotropically
In the scintillator detector assembly, a __________ converts light into electrons (photoemission). The electrons are ____________ and amplified and end up on a _____________ and sent through a meter. Photocathode; accelerated; collector
Created by: foster1317