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I. Anat 18

Urinary System

Consists of 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, urinary bladder, urethra Urinary system
Waste product of all cells (urea, creatinine, ammonia) Urine
Main function of kidneys Urine secretion
Kidneys regulate blood___ (by excreting of conserving water Volume
Kidneys regulate____ (by excreting or conserving minerals and salts) Electrolytes
Kidneys regulate ___ (by excreting or conserving ions) pH
Kidneys are located ______ ______ abdominal cavity Superior, posterior
Kidneys are located ___low ribs and on both sides of the_____ under, spine
Kidneys are _____ (behind peritoneum) Retroperitoneal
Kidneys are imbedded in ____ tissue Adipose
Kidneys are covered with renal____ (holds kidneys in place) Fascia
Medial indentation where structures enter and exit the kidneys Hilus
Structures that enter and exit the kidneys veins, arteries, ____ Ureters
Kidneys have # areas 3
The three areas of the kidneys are renal ___, ___, ___ Cortex, medulla, pelvic
The outer layer o kidney renal___ Cortex
Renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules of the nephrons are located in what layer Outer/Cortex
Middle part of the kidneys renal ___ Medulla
Renal medulla contains renal ___ Pyramids
The loops of Henle and the collecting tubules of the nephron are located in what later Middle/Medulla
Papilla (drains) located in Middle/ medulla
Inner layer of the kidneys renal___ Pelvis
Renal pelvis is a ____or__ Cavity, space
Widened area of the ureter is in renal__ Pelvis
Enclose the papillae of renal pyramids Calyces
Functional unit of the kidney Nephron
There are one million ___ in each kidney Nephrons
The ____forms urine from the blood Nephron
The nephron has # major parts 2
The two major parts of the nephron are renal _____ and renal___ corpuscles, tubules
Capillary network that starts from an afferent arteriole Glomerulus
Glomerulus starts from afferent arteriole and ends in am ____ arteriole Efferent
Efferent arteriole is ___ that the afferent to ____ BP in the glomerulus Smaller, increase
Bowman’s capsule aka Glomerular capsule
____ capsule surround the glomerulus Bowman’s/glomerular
Inner layer of glomerular capsule is made of ____ Podocytes
Podocytes cover the ____in the glomerulus Capillaries
Gaps make capillaries very __ Permeable
Outer layer expanded end of the renal___ Tubules
There are no ___or____ in the outer layer gaps, pores
The space between the two layers of the glomerular capsules contains renal___ Filtrate
Renal filtrate eventually becomes ___ urine
Continuation of the outer glomerular capsule Renal tubule
Renal tubule has #parts 3
Loop of Henle aka loop of the nephron
____ (to glomerulus) convoluted tubule (cortex_) proximal
____ (to glomerulus) convoluted tubule (medulla) Distal
Renal tubules are covered in _____capillaries which arise from efferent arterioles peritubular
Distal tubules of several nephron empty into _____tubules collecting
Several collecting tubules converge to form____ducy papillary
Blood vessels: abdominal aorta >R&L___ aorta > branches of renal artery to very small arteries > ____arterioles >____ (glomeruli) > Efferent ___>peritubular capillaries >_____ > veins >renal ____> IVC >____ renal, afferent, capillary, arterioles, venules, vein, heart
There are 2 sets of capillaries for 2 sites of ___ Exchange
Urine formation involves # major processes 3
Blood pressure forces plasma, dissolved substances and small proteins out of glomeruli in to Bowman’s capsules Glomerular filtration
Renal ____ contains waste products and useful non waste products Filtration
The amount of urine formed in a minute is called Glomerular filtration rate
GRF Glomerular filtration rate
Tubular Reabsorption happens from the renal tubules to the ____capillaries peritubular
99% of filtrate is reabsorbed during what step Tubular reabsorption
65% of reabsorption takes place in the ____convoluted tubules Proximal
Active transport uses __ ATP
To transport useful material from the filtrate back to the blood (against concentration gradient) Active transport
Passive transport does not require ____ Energy
Passive transport goes with the ___ ____ Concentration gradient
Water follows solutes Osmosis
Active process where larger molecules are engulfed by the cell membrane of the proximal convoluted tubule Pincytosis
All____should be reabsorbed proteins
Proteins in urine are a sign of ___ Kidney failure
Tubular secretion is active transport form the peritubular capillaries to the _____ ___ Renal tubules
3 hormones that affect water reabsorption Aldosterone, ANP, ADH
Aldosterone ___reabsorption of Na and excretion of K, ____BP Increase, decreases
ANP Atrial natriuretic peptide
ANP___reabsorption of Na, ____BP Increases, decreases
Antidiuretic hormone___ reabsorption of H2O ___BP increases, decrease
___are the main factor in blood pH Kidneys
Kidneys secrete___ Renin
Secretion of renin leads to release of angiotensin II and ____ Aldosterone
Kidneys secrete____ Erythropoietin
Erythropoietin stimulates___ production RBC
Paired tubes that go from each hilus to posterioinferior urinary bladder Ureters
Smooth muscles in ureters move urine Peristalsis
As the bladder fills it compresses the inferior ureter to prevent__ back flow
Muscular sac below the peritoneum posterior to pubic bone Urinary bladder
Transitional epithelium promotes expansion
Fold in the bladder when it’s empty Rugae
Triangle on the floor of the bladder Trigone
Trigone has no___ Rugae
Sphere shaped smooth muscle layer superficial to epithelium Detrusor
Involuntary fibers of detrusor Internal urethral sphincter
Single tube from bladder to vagina/penis Urethra
Longer in men, voluntary skeletal muscle of the pelvic floor external urethral sphincter
External urethral sphincter is split into 3 parts in men Prostate urethra, membranous urethra, cavernous urethra
Micturition aka (2) Urination, voiding
Urination is stimulated by stretching of the _____ Detrusor muscle
Decreased urination Oliguria
Increased urination Polyuria
Yellow byproduct of bile breakdown Urochrome
Measure of dissolved materials Specific gravity
Urine is ___% water 95
___% excess salts and waste products 5
____waste contain nitrogen Nitrogenous
Formed in liver from breakdown of AA urea
Form breakdown of creatine phosphate in muscles Creatinine
From breakdown of nucleic acids Uric
From hemoglobin of dead RBC Urobilin
Created by: Sarsileigh



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