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COS 133 Part A

Introduction to the linux command shell for beginners by victor gedris

What is a command shell? A program that interprets commands
What does BASH stand for? Bourne Again Shell
What is BASH? Its a free replacement for the original Bourne Shell. Its more flexible.
In which three ways is BASH different from DOS? -Case sensitivity - Backslash vs Forward slash - File names
Explain: \ Escape character
Explain: / Directory separator
Explain: . Current directory
Explain: .. Parent directory
Explain: ~ User's home directory
Explain: * Represents 0 or more characters in file name
Explain: ? Represents a single character in file name
Explain: [] Represent a range of values
Explain: | "Pipe" Redirect the output of one command into another command
Explain: > Redirect the output of one command into a new file
Explain: >> Redirect the output of one command into the end of an existing file
Explain: < Redirect a file as input to a program
Explain: ; Command separator
Explain: && Command separator only runs 2nd command if 1st command runs without error
Explain: & Execute command in background
How do you search for a certain word in your man pages? /word
How do you quit the man pages/ Q
What does the command chmod do? Change file access permissions
Whats the difference between info pages and man pages ? Info pages are presented in shorter segments with links to additional information
Explain: /bin Essential commands are stored here.
Explain: /boot Static files of the boot loader
Explain: /dev Device files
Explain: /etc Host-specific system configuration files
Explain: /home User's home directory
Explain: /lib Shared libraries kernel modules
Explain: /proc Interface to kernal data structures
Explain: /root The root home directory
Explain: /sbin Essential system binaries
Explain: /temp Temporary files
Explain: /usr The base directory for most shareable, read-only data
Explain: /usr/bin Most programs are kept here
Explain: /usr/include Header files for compiling C programs.
Explain: /usr/lib Libraries for most binary programs
Explain: /usr/local Locally installed files
Explain: /usr/sbin Non-Vital system binaries
Explain: /usr/share Architecture-independent data
Explain: /usr/src Program source code
Explain: /usr/X11R6 The X window system
Explain: /var Variable data
Explain: pwd print working directory
Explain: cd Change directory
Explain: cd directory Change into a specific directory
Explain: cd ~ Change into home directory
Explain: cd .. Move one directory up
Explain: cd - Move one directory back
Explain: ls list all files in directory
Explain: ls directory list files in specific directory
Explain: ls -l List files in long format
Explain: ls -a List all files including hidden files
Explain: ls -ld directory Long list of a directory (Not content but directory information)
Explain: ls /usr/bin/d* List all files whose names begin with the letter “d” in the /usr/bin directory.
What is the | used for? Chain two commands together
How do we save the output of a command? With the redirecting characters > or >>
Explain: file Find out what kind of file it is
Explain: cat displays content of a text file on screen
Explain: head Displays the first few lines of a text file
Explain: tail Displays the last few lines of a text file
Explain: tail -f Display the last few lines of a text file, and then output appended data as the file grows
Explain: cp Copy a file from one location to another
Explain: mv Move a file to a new location or renames it
Explain: rm Remove a file
Explain: mkdir Make directory
Explain: rmdir Remove directory
Explain: which Shows the full path of a shell command located in your path
Explain: whereis Locate a program, source code and manual page for a command
Explain: locate Search for files anywhere in the system
Explain: find Search for files matching a certain pattern
Explain: ps List current running process
Explain: w Shows who logged on and what they are doing
Explain: id prints user-id and group id's
Explain: df disk free
Explain: du Disk Usage in a particular directory. “du -s” provides a summary for the current directory.
Explain: top Displays CPU processes in full screen GUI
Explain: free Displays free and used memory in the system
Explain: cat /proc/cpuinfo Displays information about your CPU
Explain: cat /proc/meminfo Displays lot of information about current memory usage
Explain: uname -a Prints system information to the screen
Explain: clear Clear the screen
Explain: echo Displays text on screen
Explain: more Displays a file or program output one page at a time
Explain: less Improved replacement for more
Explain: grep Search for a pattern in a file or program output
Explain: lpr Print a file or program output
Explain: sort Sort a file or program output
Explain: su Switch user
What makes bash shell commands easier? Shortcuts
Explain: up down arrows Scroll through recent commands
Explain: the "history" command Shows your complete command history
Explain: the shortcut "!" Completes recent commands
Explain: TAB completion TAB - Complete command TAB TAB - Shows all command options
Explain: CTRL+R Search commands via a portion of command given by user
Explain: SHIFT + Page up and page down Scroll back and forward through your terminal
Created by: TooMuchMadz